Ailuropoda melanoleuca 

Scope: Global

Translate page into:

Bibliography [top]

Dierenfeld, E.S., Hintz, H.F., Robertson, P.J. and Oftedal, O.T. 1982. Utilization of bamboo by the Giant Panda. Journal of Nutrition 112: 636-641.

Fan, J., Li, J., Xia, R., Hu, L., Wu, X. and Li, G. 2014. Assessing the impact of climate change on the habitat distribution of the Giant Panda in the Qinling Mountains of China. Ecological Modelling 274: 12-20.

FAO. 2010. Global Forest Resource Assessment 2010 Main Report. FAO Forestry Paper 163. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

Feng, T.T., Van Manen, F.T., Zhao, N.X., Li, M., and Wei, F.W. 2009. Habitat assessment for giant pandas in the Qinling mountain region of China. Journal of Wildlife Management 73: 852-858.

Gittleman, J. L. 1994. Are the pandas successful specialists or evolutionary failures? BioScience 44: 456-464.

Hannah L., Roehrdanz, P.R., Ikegami, M., Shepard, A.V., Shaw, M.R., Tabor, G., Lu, Z., Marquet, P.A. and Hijmans, R.J. 2013. Climate change, wine, and conservation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110: 6907-6912.

Hu, J. and Wei, F. 2004. Comparative ecology of giant pandas in the five mountain ranges of their distribution. In: D. Lindburg and K. Baragona (eds), Giant pandas. Biology and conservation, pp. 137-148. University of California Press, Berkeley, California, USA.

Hull, V., Zhang, J., Zhou, S., Huang, J., Viña, A., Liu, W., Tuanmu, M.N., Li, R., Liu, D., Xu, W. and Huang, Y. 2014. Impact of livestock on giant pandas and their habitat. Journal for Nature Conservation 22: 256-264.

Hull, V., Zhang, J., Zhou, S., Huang, J., Li, R., Liu, D., Xu, W., Huang, Y., Ouyang, S., Zhang, H., and Liu J. 2015. Space use by endangered giant pandas. Journal of Mammalogy 96: 230-236.

Hu, Y.B., Zhan, X.J., Qi, D.W., and Wei, F.W. 2010. Spatial genetic structure and dispersal of giant pandas on a mountain-range scale. Conservation Genetics 11: 2145-2155.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: (Accessed: 04 September 2016).

Linderman, M., Bearer, S., An, L., Tan, Y.C., Ouyang, Z.Y., and Liu, J.G. 2005. The effects of understory bamboo on broad-scale estimates of giant panda habitat. Biological Conservation 121: 383-390.

Li, R.Q., Fan, W., Tian, G., Zhu, H.M., He, L., Cai, J., Huang, Q.F., Cai, Q.L., Li, B., Bai, Y.Q., Zhang, Z., Zhang, Y., Wang, W., Li, J., Wei, F., Li, H., Jian, M., Li, J., Zhang, Z., Nielsen, R., Li, D., Gu, W., Yang, Z., Xuan, Z., Ryder, O.A., Leung, F.C., Zhou, Y., Cao, J., Sun, X., Fu, Y., Fang, X., Guo, X., Wang, B., Hou, R., Shen, F., Mu, B., Ni, P., Lin, R., Qian, W., Wang, G., Yu, C., Nie, W., Wang, J., Wu, Z., Liang, H., Min, J., Wu, Q., Cheng, S., Ruan, J., Wang, M., Shi, Z., Wen, M., Liu, B., Ren, X., Zheng, H., Dong, D., Cook, K., Shan, G., Zhang, H., Kosiol, C., Xie, X., Lu, Z., Zheng, H., Li, Y., Steiner, C.C., Lam, T.T., Lin, S., Zhang, Q., Li, G., Tian, J., Gong, T., Liu, H., Zhang, D., Fang, L., Ye, C., Zhang, J., Hu, W., Xu, A., Ren, Y., Zhang, G., Bruford, M.W., Li, Q., Ma, L., Guo, Y., An, N., Hu, Y., Zheng, Y., Shi, Y., Li, Z., Liu, Q., Chen, Y., Zhao, J., Qu, N., Zhao, S., Tian, F., Wang, X., Wang, H., Xu, L., Liu, X., Vinar, T., Wang, Y., Lam, T.W., Yiu, S.M., Liu, S., Zhang, H., Li, D., Huang, Y., Wang, X., Yang, G., Jiang, Z., Wang, J., Qin, N., Li, L., Li, J., Bolund, L., Kristiansen, K., Wong, G.K., Olson, M., Zhang, X., Li, S., Yang, H., Wang, J., and Wang, J. 2010. The sequence and de novo assembly of the giant panda genome. Nature 463: 311-317.

Li, R.Q., Xu, M., Wang, M.H.G., Qiu S., Li X., Ehrenfeld D., and Li D. 2015. Climate change threatens giant panda protection in the 21st century. Biological Conservation 182: 93-101.

Liu, J., Linderman, M., Ouyang, Z., An, L., Yang, J. and Zhang, H. 2001. Ecological degradation in protected areas: the case of Wolong Nature Reserve for giant pandas. Science 292: 98-101.

Liu, J., Li, S., Ouyang, Z., Tam, C., and Chen, X. 2008. Ecological and socioeconomic effects of China’s policies for ecosystem services. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 9477-0482.

Liu, W., Vogt, C.A., Luo, J., He, G., Frank, K.A., and Liu, J. 2012. Drivers and Socioeconomic Impacts of Tourism Participation in Protected Areas. PLoS ONE 7(4).

Liu, X., Skidmore, A. K., Wang, T., Yong, Y. and Prins, H. H. T. 2002. Giant panda movements in Foping Nature Reserve, China. Journal of Wildlife Management 66: 1179-1188.

Li, X., Jiang, G., Tian, H., Xu, L., Yan, C., Wang, Z., Wei, F. and Zhang, Z. 2015. Human impact and climate cooling caused range contraction of large mammals in China over the past two millennia. Ecography 38: 74-82.

Li. Y.M., Guo, Z.W., Yang, Q.S., Wang, Y.S. and Niemela, J. 2003. The implications of poaching for giant panda conservation. Biological Conservation 111: 125-136.

Loucks, C. J., Dinerstein, E., Zhi, L., Dajun, W., Dali, F. and Hao, W. 2003. The giant pandas of the Qinling Mountains, China: A case study in designing conservation landscapes for elevational migrants. Conservation Biology 17: 558-565.

Lü, Z., Johnson, W. E., Menotti-Raymond, M., Yuhk, I N., Martenson, J. S., Mainka, S., Shi-Qiang, H., Zhihe, Z., Li, G., Pan, W., Mao, X. and O'Brien, S.J. 2001. Patterns of genetic diversity in remaining giant panda populations. Conservation Biology 15: 1596-1607.

Mackinnon, J. 2008. Species richness and adaptive capacity in animal communities: lessons from China. Integrative Zoology 3: 95-100.

Martin-Wintle, M.S., Shepherdson, D.J., Zhang, G., Li, D., Zhou, Z., Li, R., Zhang, H. and Swaisgood, R.R. 2015. Free mate choice enhances conservation breeding in the endangered giant panda. Nature Communications.

Nie, Y.G., Swaisgood, R.R., Zhang, Z.J., Hu, Y.B., Ma, Y.S. and Wei, F.W. 2012a. Giant panda scent-marking strategies in the wild: role of season, sex and marking surface. Animal Behaviour 84: 39-44.

Nie, Y.G., Swaisgood, R.R., Zhang, Z.J., Liu, X.B. and Wei, F.W. 2012b. Reproductive competition and fecal testosterone in wild male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 66: 721-730.

Nie, Y.G., Zhang, Z.J., Raubenheimer, D., Elser, J., Wei, W. and Wei, F.W. 2014. Obligate herbivory in an ancestrally carnivorous lineage: the giant panda and bamboo from the perspective of nutritional geometry. Functional Ecology 29: 26-34.

Nie, Y., Speakman, J. R., Wu, Q., Zhang, C., Hu, Y., Xia, M., Yan, L., Hambly, C., Wang, L., Wei, W., Zhang, J., and Wei,F. 2015. Exceptionally low daily energy expenditure in the bamboo-eating giant panda. Science 349: 171-174.

Noss, R.F. 1990. Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach. Conservation Biology 4: 355-364.

Pan, W., Lü, Z., Zhu, X., Wang, D., Wang, H., Long, Y., Fu, D. and Zhou, X. 2001. A chance for lasting survival. Thesis, Peking University Press.

Qi, D.W., Zhang, Z.J., Hu, Y.B., Yang, X.Y., Wang, H.J. and Wei, F.W. 2012. Measures of giant panda habitat selection across multiple spatial scales for species conservation. Journal of Wildlife Management 76: 1092-1100.

Qin, Q., Li, D.S., Zhang, H.M., Hou, R., Zhang, Z.H., Zhang, C.L., Zhang, J.G. and Wei, F.W. 2010. Serosurvey of selected viruses in captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China. Veterinary Microbiology 142: 199-204.

Reid, D. and Gong, J. 1999. Giant panda conservation action plan. In: C. Servheen, S. Herrero and B. Peyton (eds), Bears. Status survey and conservation action plan, pp. 241-254. IUCN/SSC Bear and Polar Bear Specialist Groups, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Reid, D. G., Jinchu, H., Sai, D., Wei, W. and Yan, H. 1989. Giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca behaviour and carrying capacity following a bamboo die-off. Biological Conservation 49: 85-104.

Schaller, G. B., Hu, J., Pan, W. and Zhu, J. 1985. The giant pandas of Wolong. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.

Shan, L., Hu, Y.B., Zhu, L.F., Yan, L., Wang, C.D., Li, D.S., Jin, X.L., Zhang, C.L. and Wei, F.W. 2014. Large-scale genetic survey provides insights into the captive management and reintroduction of giant pandas. Molecular Biology and Evolution 31(10): 2663-2671.

Shen, G.Z., Feng, C.Y., Xie, Z.Q., Ouyang, Z.Y., Li, J.Q., Pascal, M. 2008. Proposed conservation landscape for giant pandas in the Minshan Mountains, China. Conservation Biology 22: 1144-1153.

Sichuan Forestry Department. 2015. The Pandas of Sichuan: The 4th Survey Report on Giant Panda in Sichuan Province. Sichuan Science and Technology Press: Chengdu.

Songer, M., Delion, M., Biggs, A., and Huang, Q. 2012. Modeling impacts of climate change on giant panda habitat. International Journal of Ecology.

State Forestry Administration of China. 2015. Release of the fourth national survey report on giant panda in China. State Forestry Administration, Beijing.

Swaisgood, R.R., Lindburg, D.G., White, A.M., Zhang, H. and Zhou, X. 2004. Chemical communication in giant pandas: experimentation and application. In: Lindburg, D., and Baragona, K. (eds), Giant pandas: biology and conservation, pp. 106-120. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Swaisgood, R.R., Wei, F., Mcshea, W.J., Wildt, D.E., Kouba, A.J. and Zhang, Z. 2011. Can science save the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)? Unifying science and policy in an adaptive management paradigm. Integrative Zoology 6: 290-296.

Swaisgood, R,R,, Wei, F.W., Wildt, D.E., Kouba, A.J. and Zhang, Z.J. 2010. Giant panda conservation science: how far we have come? Biology Letters 6: 143-145.

Swaisgood, R.R., Zhang, G., Zhou, X. and Zhang, H. 2006. The science of behavioral management: creating biologically relevant living environments in captivity. In: Wildt, D.E., Zhang, A.J., Zhang, H., Janssen, D., and Ellis, S. (eds), Giant pandas: biology, veterinary medicine and management, pp. 274-298. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press.

Tuanmu, M.N., Viña, A., Winkler, J.A., Li, Y., Xu, W., Ouyang, Z., and Liu, J. 2013. Climate-change impacts on understorey bamboo species and giant pandas in China's Qinling Mountains. Nature Climate Change 3: 249-253.

Tuanmu, M.N., Viña, A., Yang, W., Chen, X., Shortridge, A.M. and Liu, J. 2016. Effects of payments for ecosystem services on wildlife habitat recovery. Conservation Biology 30(4): 827–835.

Viña, A., Bearer, S., Chen, X., He, G., Linderman, M., An, L., Zhang, H., Ouyang, Z., and Liu, J.. 2007. Temporal changes in giant panda habitat connectivity across boundaries of Wolong Nature Reserve, China. Ecological Applications 17: 1019-1030.

Viña, A., Bearer, S., Zhang, H., Ouyang, Z. and Liu, J. 2008. Evaluating MODIS data for mapping wildlife habitat distribution. Remote Sensing of Environment 112: 2160-2169.

Viña, A., Tuanmu, M.-N., Xu, W., Li, Y., Ouyang, Z., DeFries, R. and Liu, J. 2010. Range-wide analysis of wildlife habitat: implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 143: 1960-1969.

Wang, F., McShea, W.J., Wang, D. and Li, S. 2015. Shared resources between giant panda and sympatric wild and domestic mammals. Biological Conservation 186: 319-325.

Wang, F., McShea, W.J., Wang, D., Li, S., Zhao, Q., Wang, H. and Lu, Z. 2014. Evaluating landscape options for corridor restoration between giant panda reserves. PloS ONE 9.

Wang, T.J., Skidmore, A.K., and Toxopeus, A.G. 2009. Improved understorey bamboo cover mapping using a novel hybrid neural network and expert system. International Journal of Remote Sensing 30: 965-981.

Wan, Q. H., Wu, H. and Fang, S. G. 2005. A new subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from Shaanxi, China. Journal of Mammalogy 86: 397-402.

Wei, F.W. and Hu, J.C. 1994. Studies on the reproduction of giant panda in Wolong Nature Reserve. Acta Theriologica Sinica 14: 243-248.

Wei, F.W., Feng, Z., Wang, Z. and Li, M. 1999. Feeding strategy and resource partitioning between giant and red pandas. Mammalia 63: 417-430.

Wei, F.W., Hu, Y.B., Yan, L., Nie, Y.G., Wu, Q., and Zhang, Z.J. 2014. Giant pandas are not an evolutionary cul-de-sac: Evidence from multidisciplinary research. Molecular Biology and Evolution 32: 4-12.

Wei, F.W., Hu, Y.B., Zhu, L.F., Bruford, M.W., Zhan, X.J. and Zhang, L. 2012. Black and white and read all over: the past, present and future of giant panda genetics. Molecular Ecology 21: 5660-5674.

Wei, F.W., Nie, Y.G., Zhang, Z.J., Hu, Y.B., Yan, L., Qi, D.W., Li, X.H. and Wei, F.W. 2015b. Hunting bamboo: Foraging patch selection and utilization by giant pandas and implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 186: 260-267.

Wei, F.W., Swaisgood, R.R., Hu, Y.B., Nie, Y.G., Yan, L., Zhang, Z.J., Qi, D.W. and Zhu, L.F. 2015a. Progress in the ecology and conservation of giant pandas. Conservation Biology 29: 1497-1507.

White, T.H., Jr., Bowman, J.L., Jacobson, H.A., Leopold, B.D. and Smith, W.P. 2001. Forest management and female black bear denning. Journal of Wildlife Management 65: 34-40.

Zhang, B., Li M., Zhang, Z., Goossens, B., Zhu, L., Zhang, S., Hu. J., Bruford, M.W., and Wei, F. 2007. Genetic viability and population history of the giant panda, putting an end to the ‘‘Evolutionary Dead End’’? Molecular Biology and Evolution 24: 1801-1810.

Zhang, L., Wu, Q., Hu, Y.B., Wu, H. and Wei, F.W. 2015. Major histocompatibility complex alleles associated with parasite susceptibility in wild giant pandas. Heredity 114: 85-93.

Zhang, L., Yang, X., Wu, H., Gu, X., Hu, Y. and Wei, F.W. 2011. The parasites of giant pandas: individual-based measurement in wild animals. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47: 164-171.

Zhang, Z., and Wei, F.W. 2006. Giant panda ex-situ conservation: theory and practice. Science Press, Beijing.

Zhang, Z.J., Sheppard, J., Zhu, J., Wei, F.W., Swaisgood, R.R., Wang, G., Nie, Y.G., Wei, W. and Wei, F.W. 2014. Ecological scale and seasonal heterogeneity in the spatial behaviors of giant pandas. Integrative Zoology 9: 46-60.

Zhang, Z.J., Swaisgood, R.R., Zhang, S., Nordstrom, L.A., Wang, H., Gu, X., Hu, J. and Wei, F.W. 2011. Old-growth forest is what giant pandas really need. Biology Letters 7: 403-406.

Zhang, Z., Swaisgood, R.R., Wu, H., Li, M., Yong, Y., Hu, J. and Wei, F. 2007. Factors predicting den use by maternal giant pandas. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 2694-2698.

Zhan, X. J., Li, M., Zhang, Z. J., Goossens, B., Chen, Y. P., Wang, H., Bruford, M. W. and Wei, F. 2006. Molecular censusing doubles giant panda population estimate in a key nature reserve. Current Biology 16: 451-452.

Zhao S1, Zheng P, Dong S, Zhan, X., Wu, Q., Guo, X., Hu, Y., He, W., Zhang, S., Fan, W., Zhu, L., Li, D., Zhang, X., Chen, Q., Zhang, H., Zhang, Z,. Jin, X., Zhang, J., Yang, H., Wang, J., Wang, J., and Wei, F. 2013. Whole genome sequencing of giant pandas provides insights into demographic history and local adaptation. Nature Genetics 45: 67-71.

Zhu, L.F., Hu, Y.B., Qi, D.W., Wu, H., Zhan, X., Zhang, Z., Bruford, M.W, Wang, J., Yang, X., Gu, X., Zhang, L., Zhang, B., Zhang, S., and Wei, F. 2013. Genetic consequences of historical anthropogenic and ecological events on giant pandas. Ecology 94: 2346-2357.

Zhu, L.F., Wu, Q., Dai, J.Y., Zhang, S.N. and Wei, F.W. 2011a. Evidence of cellulose metabolism by the giant panda gut microbiome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108: 17714-17719.

Zhu, L.F., Zhang, S.N., Gu, X.D. and Wei, F.W. 2011b. Significant genetic boundaries and spatial dynamics of giant pandas occupying fragmented habitat across southwest China. Molecular Ecology 20: 1122-1132.

Zhu, L.F., Zhan, X.J., Wu, H., Zhang, S.N., Meng, T., Bruford, M.W. and Wei, F.W. 2010. Drastic reduction of the smallest and most isolated giant panda population: implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 24: 1299-1306.

Zhu, X., Lindburg, D. G., Pan, W., Forney, K. A. and Wang, D. 2001. The reproductive strategy of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): Infant growth and development and mother-infant relationships. Journal of Zoology (London) 253: 141-155.

Citation: Swaisgood, R., Wang, D. & Wei, F. 2016. Ailuropoda melanoleuca. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T712A45033386. . Downloaded on 25 September 2016.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided