Ectophylla alba 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Phyllostomidae

Scientific Name: Ectophylla alba
Species Authority: H. Allen, 1892
Common Name(s):
English Honduran White Bat, White Bat

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-07-20
Assessor(s): Rodriguez, B. and Pineda, W.
Reviewer(s): Solari, S.
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it is in significant decline, but at a rate of less than 30% over the past three generations (18 years), due to habitat conversion for urban areas for the growing human population. This species almost qualifies as Vulnerable under criterion A2c.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from Honduras to western Panama (Simmons 2005). It occurs from the Caribbean lowlands to 700 m asl (Reid 1997).
Countries occurrence:
Costa Rica; Honduras; Nicaragua; Panama
Upper elevation limit (metres):700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This bat is uncommon and local (Reid 1997). In Costa Rice, the population is known to have declined.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species can be found in wet, evergreen forest and tall secondary growth. It may have strong habitat preference (Rodriguez-Herrera pers. comm.). It roosts in groups of four to eight individuals in tents made from small to medium sized Heliconia spp. or other understory plants. Horizontal leaves are chewed on either side of the midrib, causing the sides to collapse and hang vertically. Old Heliconia leaves assume the same form, but appear withered and dead, whereas tents in active use are made from succulent, green leaves. Tents are about two metres above the ground, and some tents are used only as night feeding roosts. Fruit pulp and seeds of small, understory figs were found under a night roost. This bat is seldom caught in mist nets, except when nets are set near occupied tents. Roosting groups can be closely approached and observed. Males and females share tents until young are born (in April in Costa Rica), then males leave. Females appear to suckle each others young on occasion (Timm 1982, Reid 1997). This species has a generation length of six years (Pacifici et al. 2013).
Generation Length (years):6

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not utilised.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Urbanisation is the main threat to this species. In Costa Rica, this species has declined as growth of the human population and resulting urbanisation has resulted in loss and degradation of habitat. This species may have strong habitat and food preferences (Rodriguez-Herrera pers. comm.).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is found in protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.

Reid, F. 2009. A field guide to the mammals of Central America and southeast Mexico. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.

Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Timm, R.M. 1982. Ectophylla alba. Mammalian Species 166: 1-4.

Citation: Rodriguez, B. and Pineda, W. 2015. Ectophylla alba. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T7030A22027138. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.
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