Map_thumbnail_large_font

Delphinapterus leucas

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_onStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Bibliography [top]

Alvarez-Flores, C. and Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. 2004. Risk Assessment of the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) harvest in West Greenland. ICES Journal of Marine Science 61: 774-786.

Angliss, R. P. and Outlaw, R. B. 2005. Alaska marine mammal stock assessments. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC.

Barber, D. G., Saczuk, E. and Richard, J. P. 2001. Examination of beluga-habitat relationships through the use of telemetry and a geographic information system. Arctic 54: 305-316.

Boltunov, A. N. and Belikov, S. E. 2002. Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) of the Barents, Kara and Laptev Seas. In: M. P. Heide-Jørgensen and O. Wiig (eds), Belugas in the North Atlantic and Russian Arctic, pp. 149-168. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4.

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 2004. Assessment and update status report on the beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas in Canada. Ottawa, Canada Available at: www.sararegistry.gc.ca/status/status_e.cfm.

Finley, K. J., Miller, G. W., Davis, R. A. and Greene, C. R. 1990. Reactions of belugas Delphinapterus leucas and narwhals Monodon monoceros to ice-breaking ships in the Canadian High Arctic. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 224: 97–117.

Frost, K. J. and Lowry, L. F. 1990. Distribution, abundance, and movements of beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, in coastal waters of western Alaska. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 224: 39-57.

Frost, K. J., Lowry, L. F. and Carroll, G. 1993. Beluga whale and spotted seal use of a coastal lagoon system in the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Arctic 46: 8-16.

Frost, K. J., Russell, R. B. and Lowry, L. F. 1992. Killer whales, Orcinus orca, in the southeastern Bering Sea: recent sightings and predation on other marine mammals. Marine Mammal Science 8: 110-119.

Gjertz, I. and Wiig, Ø. 1994. Distribution and catch of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) at Svalbard. Meddelelser om Gronland Bioscience 39: 93-100.

Hammill, M. O., Lesage, V., Gosselin, J.-F. 2005. Abundance of Eastern Hudson Bay belugas. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2005/010.

Hammill, M. O., Lesage, V., Gosselin, J. F., Bourdages, H., De March, B. G. E. and Kingsley, M. C. S. 2004. Evidence of a decline in northern Quebec (nunavik) belugas. Arctic 57: 183-195.

Harwood, L. A., Innes, S., Norton, P. and Kingsley, M. C. S. 1996. Distribution and abundance of beluga whales in the Mackenzie Estuary, Southeast Beaufort Sea and West Amundsen Gulf during late July 1992. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53: 2262-2273.

Heide-Jorgensen, M. and Reeves, R. R. 1993. Description of an anomalous mondontid skull from West Greenland: a possible hybrid? Marine Mammal Science 9: 258-268.

Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. 1994. Distribution, exploitation and population status of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhals (Monodon monceros) in West Greenland. Meddelelser om Gronland Bioscience 39: 135-150.

Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Aquarone, M. 2002. Size and trends of bowhead whales, beluga and narwhal stocks wintering off West Greenland. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4: 191-210.

Heide-Jorgensen, M. P. and Reeves, R. R. 1996. Evidence of a decline in beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, abundance off West Greenland. ICES Journal of Marine Science 53: 61-72.

Heide-Jorgensen, M. P. and Teilmann, J. 1994. Growth, reproduction, age structure and feeding habits of white whales (Delphinpaterus leucas) in West Greenland waters. Meddelelser om Gronland Bioscience 39: 195-212.

Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Lassen, H. and Teilmann, J. 1993. An index of the relative abundance of wintering belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, and narwhals, Monodon monoceros, off West Greenland. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50: 2323-2335.

Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Richard, P., Dietz, R., Laidre, K. L., Orr, J. and Schmidt, H. C. 2003. An estimate of the fraction of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) in the Canadian High Arctic that winter in West Greenland. Polar Biology 26: 318-326.

Hobbs, R. C., Lairdre, K. L., Vos, D. J., Mahoney, B. A. and Eagleton, M. 2005. Movements and area use of belugas, Delphinpaterus leucas, in a subarctic Alaskan estuary. Arctic 58: 331-340.

Hobbs, R. C., Rugh, D. J. and Demaster, D. P. 2000. Abundance of belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, in Cook Inlet, Alaska, 1994-2000. Marine Fisheries Review 62: 37-45.

Innes, S., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P., Laake, J. L., Laidre, K. L., Cleator, H. J., Richard, P. and Stewart, R. E. A. 2002. Surveys of belugas and narwhals in the Canadian High Arctic in 1996. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4: 169-190.

International Whaling Commission. 2000. Report of the Sub-Committee on Small Cetaceans. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2: 235-264.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).

Kingsley, M. C. S. 2002. Status of the belugas in the St. Lawrence estuary, Canada. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4: 239-258.

Kovacs, K. M. and Lydersen, C. (eds). 2006. Birds and Mammals of Svalbard. Polarhåndbok No. 13, Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway, Grafisk Nord AS, Finnsnes, Norway.

Laidre, K.L., Stirling, I., Lowry, L.F., Wiig, Ø., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. and Ferguson, S.H. 2008. Quantifying the sensitivity of Arctic marine mammals to climate-induced habitat change. Ecological Applications 18: S97-S125.

Lowry, L. F. and Frost, K. J. 1999. Alaska Beluga Whale Committee surveys of beluga whales in Bristol Bay, Alaska, 1993-1994. Report to the International Whaling Commission SC/51/SM32.

Lowry, L., O’Corry-Crowe, G. and Goodman, D. 2006. Delphinapterus leucas (Cook Inlet population). 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Lydersen, C., Martin, A. R., Kovacs, K. M. and Gjertz, I. 2001. Summer and autumn movements of white whales Delphinapterus leucas in Svalbard, Norway. Marine Ecology Progress Series 219: 265-274.

March, B. G. E., de, Maiers, L. D. and Friesen, M. K. 2002. An overview of genetic relationships of Canadian and adjacent stocks of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) with emphasis on Baffin Bay and Canadian eastern Arctic stocks. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4: 17-38.

Martineau, D., De Guise, S., Fournier, M., Shugart, L. R., Girard, C., Lagace, A. and Beland, P. 1994. Pathology and toxicology of beluga whales from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada. Past, present and future. Science of the Total Environment 154: 201-215.

Moore, S. E. 2000. Variability of cetacean distribution and habitat selection in the Alaskan Arctic, Autumn 1982-91. Arctic 53: 448-460.

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. 2000. Report of the NAMMCO scientific committee working group on the population status of Beluga and Narwhal in the North Atlantic. Annual Report of the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Tromsø, Norway, 1999.: 153–188.

O'Corry-Crowe, G. M. 2002. Beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas. In: W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig and J. G. M. Thewissen (eds), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 94-99. Academic Press.

O'Corry-Crowe, G. M., Dizon, A. E., Suydam, R. S. and Lowry, L. F. 2002. Molecular genetic studies of population structure and movement patterns in a migratory species: the beluga whale, Delphinapterus leucas, in the western Nearctic. In: C. J. Pfeiffer (ed.), Molecular and Cell Biology of Marine Mammals, pp. 53-64. Kreiger Publishing Company.

O’Corry-Crowe, G. M., Suydam, R. S., Rosenberg, A., Frost, K. J. and Dizon, A. E. 1997. Phylogeny, population structure, and dispersal of the beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas in the western Nearctic revealed by mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Ecology 6: 955-970.

Palsbøll, P., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Berubé, M. 2002. Analysis of mitochondrial control region nucleotide sequences from Baffin Bay belugas, Delphinapterus leucas: detecting pods or sub-populations? NAMMCO Scientific Publications 4: 39-50.

Richard, P. R. 1991. Status of the belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, of southeast Baffin Island, Northwest Territories. Canadian Field-Naturalist 105: 206-214.

Richard, P. R., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and St. Aubin, D. 1998. Fall movements of belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) with satellite-linked transmitters in Lancaster Sound. Arctic 51: 5-16.

Richard, P. R., Heide-Jorgensen, M. P., Orr, J. R., Dietz, R. and Smith, T. G. 2001. Summer and autumn movements and habitat use by belugas in the Canadian high arctic and adjacent areas. Arctic 54: 207-222.

Richard, P. R., Orr, J. R, Dietz, R. and Dueck, L. 1998. Sightings of belugas and other marine mammals in the North Water, late March 1993. Arctic 51: 1-4.

Seaman, G. A., Lowry, L. F. and Frost, K. J. 1982. Foods of belukha whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in western Alaska. Cetology 44: 19 pp.

Sergeant, D. E. and Brodie, P. F. 1969. Body size in white whales, Delphinapterus leucas. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 26: 2561-2580.

St. Aubin, D. J., Smith, T. G. and Geraci, J. R. 1990. Seasonal epidermal molt in beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 359-367.

Stewart, B. E and Stewart, R. E. A. 1989. Delphinapterus leucas. Mammalian Species 336: 1-8.

Suydam, R. S., Lowry, L. F., Frost, K. J., O'Corry-Crowe, G. M. and Pisok, D. 2001. Satellite tracking of eastern Chukchi Sea beluga whales into the Arctic Ocean. Arctic 54: 237-243.

Tynan, C. T. and DeMaster, D. P. 1997. Observations and predictions of Arctic climate change potential effects of marine mammals. Arctic 50: 308-322.


Citation: Jefferson, T.A., Karkzmarski, L., Laidre, K., O’Corry-Crowe, G., Reeves, R., Rojas-Bracho, L., Secchi, E., Slooten, E., Smith, B.D., Wang, J.Y. & Zhou, K. 2012. Delphinapterus leucas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 December 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided