Centranthus trinervis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Dipsacales Valerianaceae

Scientific Name: Centranthus trinervis (Viv.) Bég.
Common Name(s):
French Centranthe à trois nervures
Valeriana trinervis Viv.
Taxonomic Notes: The Sardinian taxon has been renamed C. amazonum Fridl. & A. Raynal.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-06-24
Assessor(s): Buord, S. & Gigot, G.
Reviewer(s): Hugot, L., de Montmollin, B. & Bilz, M.
Contributor(s): Fridlender, A., Jeanmonod, D. & Peraza Zurita, M.D.
Centranthus trinervis is a herbaceous species endemic to Corsica where only a single subpopulation with 140 individuals remains. It is protected at regional, national and international level but a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors could rapidly lead to the extinction of this species in its natural habitat. However, the population and the cliff habitat it survives on are currently stable and the species is therefore assessed as Endangered D.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Centranthus trinervis is endemic to Corsica, and is only known from a single population on the granitic boulders of Trinité near Bonifacio in the southwest of the island. 
It can be found at sea level. The extent of occurrence is 140 km² and the area of occupancy is less than 10 km².
Countries occurrence:
France (Corsica)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:1-10
Number of Locations:1
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The single locality holds 140 individuals. Habitat and population are stable. There was an extreme population fluctuation in 1994 when a fire destroyed 80% of the population but it regenerated afterwards (Montmollin and Strahm 2005).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:112Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This herbaceous species grows in the shade of rock crevices and along cliff terraces. Only the woody base of this plant persists throughout the entire year, as other above-ground parts dry up at the beginning of summer or are broken by autumn storms. The single subpopulation grows on a cliff.

After a fire, partially burned individuals may regenerate from small suckers at the base. The fruits are dispersed by wind, although regeneration has not been observed outside its present location.

It can be found in Habitats Directive listed habitat 8220 "Siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation" (Commission of the European Communities 2009).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Grazing by goats is a minor threat in lower occurrences of the population and it tends to decrease. In 1994 a fire destroyed 80% of the population but it regenerated afterwards (Montmollin and Strahm 2005). On the other hand, natural fires have been reported to have positive effects on potential competitive species such as Smilax aspera.
Although C. ruber has not yet shown signs of being particularly invasive on Corsica, it could hybridize with C. trinervis in the future. A further potential threat could be human disturbance as the population is not far from already developed urban areas. Climbing was reported as a threat in the past as a "via ferrata" was installed at the cliff but this is not the case anymore.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Actions in Place
Internationally, it is included in Annexes II and IV of the Habitats Directive and in Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). This species is legally protected in La liste des espèces végétales protégées en région Corse complétant la liste nationale (Journal officiel du 15 août 1986) and listed in La liste des espèces végétales protégées sur l'ensemble du territoire français métropolitain (Annex I).

In situ: This species' habitat is included in the Natura 2000 network, it should be managed in a way that favours the conservation of this species. Climbing equipments on the cliff has been removed, population is regularly monitored. The Conservatoire du Littoral bought the area where this species is present as a way to keep the population protected.

Ex situ: Seeds of this species are preserved in several seed banks (e.g. Porquerolles), and cultivated in the botanical gardens of Brest, Porquerolles and in the Jardin Botanique de Lyon (France) and Geneva (Switzerland).

Actions Needed
Most urgently, the unique site where this species is found needs to be managed to allow the population to increase. It is essential that the habitat be kept open by clearing competing species such as Smilax aspera, and by eliminating the cultivation of Centranthus ruber and other invasive species grown in the area. Climbing associations as well as the general public need to be made aware about the conservation status of rare plant species in the region.

More field studies and regular monitoring are needed to understand the effect of vegetation cover and density, fires and storms on this species. A replanting programme from seeds collected in situ and plants grown in botanical gardens should be launched.

Classifications [top]

13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.1. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):100
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.4. Storms & flooding
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Centranthus ruber ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.1. Hybridisation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.2. Problematic native species/diseases -> 8.2.2. Named species [ Smilax aspera ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Commission of the European Communities. 2009. Composite Report on the Conservation Status of Habitat Types and Species as required under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive. Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. Brussels.

Corrias, B. 1978. Centranthus trinervis (Viv.) Béguinot. In Le piante endemiche della Sardegna 24-28. Bolletino della Societa Sarda di Sienze Naturali, Anno XI 20: 327-332.

Friedlander, A. 1995. Etude de quelques espèces végétales corses menacées ou inscrites à la "Directive Habitat". Rapport pour le Conservatoire du Littoral et des Rivages (CEL), Laboratoire de Biologie Végétale, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France..

Friedlander, A. 1999. Originalités biologiques et systématiques des espèces rares. Quelques exemples choisis dans la flore Tyrrhénienne. Thèse de Ph.D. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, France.

Friedlander, A. and Raynal-Roques, A. 1998. Une nouvelle espèce de Centranthus (Valerianaceae) endémique de Sardaigne. Adansonia 20: 327-332.

Gamisans, J. and Jeanmonod, D. 1993. Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Corse seconde édition. In: D. Jeanmonod and H.M. Burdet (eds), Compléments au Prodrome de la flore de Corse. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de Genève, Switzerland. 258 pp.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2017).

Montmollin, B. de and Strahm, W. (eds). 2005. The Top 50 Mediterranean Island Plants: Wild plants at the brink of extinction, and what is needed to save them. IUCN SSC Mediterranean Islands Plant Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Olivier, L., Galland, J.-P., Maurin, H. and Roux, J.-P. 1995. Livre Rouge de la flore menacée de France. Tome I: espèces prioritaires. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Service Patrimoine Naturel, Conservatoire Botanique National de Porquerolles, Ministère de l'Environnement, Paris.

Valentin, B., Toussaint, B. and Valet, J.M. 2010. Bilan de la conservation des taxons du tome 1 du livre rouge de la flore menacée de France. Centre régional de phytosociologie / Conservatoire botanique national de Bailleul, pour la Fédération des Conservatoires Botaniques Nationaux, Bailleul.

Walter, K.S. and Gillett, H.J. (eds). 1998. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Citation: Buord, S. & Gigot, G. 2011. Centranthus trinervis. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T61648A12532505. . Downloaded on 25 June 2018.
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