Cyanea truncata 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Campanulales Campanulaceae

Scientific Name: Cyanea truncata
Species Authority: (Rock) Rock
Common Name(s):
English Punaluu Cyanea
Synonym(s):
Rollandia truncata Rock
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at: http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i,ii); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-05-02
Assessor(s): Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Keir, M.
Reviewer(s): Sporck-Koehler, M.
Contributor(s): Chau, M., Gon, S.M., Kwon, J., Sporck-Koehler, M., Sugii, N., Weisenberger, L. & Yoshioka, J.M.
Justification:

Cyanea truncata is assessed as Critically Endangered. The taxon is endemic to the island of Oʻahu and has an extent of occurrence of 17 km². It has experienced severe and ongoing decline in habitat and numbers due to the impacts of invasive plants and animals. Its area of occupancy is 4 km² and declining. Its distribution is severely limited, with only a single plant left. This qualifies the taxon to a ranking of Critically Endangered under criteria B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i,ii); D.


Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Endemic to the Hawaiian islands, between 240 and 400 m elevation on the island of Oʻahu.

Countries occurrence:
Native:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:4Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:17
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):240
Upper elevation limit (metres):400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

The taxon is extremely rare, with a total known population of a single mature individual plant.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The taxon is a shrub found in Hawaiian subtropical moist lowland forest.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

The major threats to this taxon include direct competition by invasive non-native plant species, and predation and habitat degradation by non-native animals, particularly pigs and goats, which degrade the habitat and harm the plants through predation, trampling, and rooting for food. Alien plants also threaten the species by altering its habitat and competing with it for moisture, nutrients, light, and space. Rats pose a threat to the species through predation of its plant parts and fruits; and introduced slugs and snails threaten the species by feeding on its leaves, stems, and seedlings. Fortini et al. (2013) characterized this taxon as extremely vulnerable to climate change (vulnerability index [0.76]). 

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

The taxon is on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and also on the State of Hawaiʻi Endangered Species List. The single subpopulation does not occur in a protected area, but it is managed and monitored by the Hawaiʻi State Plant Extinction Prevention Program. Ex situ cultivation and propagule storage is also ongoing. Outplantings have occurred, but have not yet produced viable offspring. Further research is needed on general ecology, life history, population size, distribution, and trends; population genetics, and threats.  

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:No
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):0
  Invasive species control or prevention:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:Unknown
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Future ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Capra hircus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Sus domesticus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

Bibliography [top]

Cuddihy, L.W. and Stone, C.P. 1990. Alteration of native Hawaiian vegetation; effects of humans, their activities and introductions. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii.: 138 pages.

Fortini, L., Price, J., Jacobi, J., Vorsino, A., Burgett, J., Brinck, K., Amidon, F., Miller, S., Gon II, S., Koob, G. and Paxton, E. 2013. A landscape-based assessment of climate change vulnerability for all native Hawaiian plants. Technical report HCSU-044. Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hawaii.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).

NatureServe. 2003. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 1.8. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. (Accessed: October 16, 2003).

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998. Recovery plan for the Oahu plants. Portland, Oregon.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Rare plant database. Unpublished.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2007. Cyanea truncata (haha) 5-year review, summary and evaluation.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. Cyanea truncata (haha) 5-year review, summary and evaluation.

Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer S. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication 91: 1-1918.


Citation: Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Keir, M. 2016. Cyanea truncata. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T44053A83791995. . Downloaded on 29 September 2016.
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