Chlorocebus djamdjamensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Chlorocebus djamdjamensis (Neumann, 1902)
Common Name(s):
English Bale Monkey, Bale Mountains Grivet, Bale Mountains Vervet, Djam-djam
French Grivet des Balé
Spanish Vervet de las Montañas Bale
Cercopithecus aethiops ssp. djamdjamensis Neumann, 1902
Cercopithecus djamdjamensis Neumann, 1902
Taxonomic Source(s): Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. and Wilson D.E. 2013. Handbook of the Mammals of the World: Volume 3 Primates. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Taxonomic Notes: Listed by Grubb et al. (2003) as a subspecies of C. aethiops, but here treated as a separate species following Groves (2005). Groves (2005) includes this taxon in Chlorocebus, in contrast to Grubb et al. (2003) who retained it in Cercopithecus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Butynski, T.M., Gippoliti, S., Kingdon, J. & De Jong, Y.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable as the range of this species is less than 20,000 km² with severe fragmentation and there is continuing decline due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation. The species occurs at low densities in bamboo forest, a very specialized and unusual habitat.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Endemic to the highlands of Ethiopia, east of the Ethiopian Rift Valley in the Bale Mountains, where found at high elevations from 2,400 to 3,000 m asl (see Butynski in press).
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The species was presumably more widespread and abundant in historic times. There is no information on population size, but it may be locally common in some areas (e.g., in Odobullu Forest at 6.87ºN, 40.17ºE; Butynski in press).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species has specialised habitat requirements as it is found in the bamboo forest zone of the Bale Mountains massif. Butynski (in press) summarizes the current state of knowledge of this diurnal, semi-terrestrial monkey.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat to this species is ongoing habitat loss and degradation. For example, the Harenna Forest, where the Bale Monkey is generally uncommon, is under threat from expanding human populations, fire, agriculture, and the removal of forest products such as bamboo, lumber, fuelwood, and charcoal. Persecution for crop raiding may also be a localised threat. There is suggestion that hybridization may occur with C. aethiops on the margins of its range, but there are no confirmed records as yet.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES and on Class B of the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. It is present in the proposed Harena-Kokosa National Forest Reserve, but which needs to be formally gazetted. Ongoing survey work in the Bale Mountains will hopefully reveal a better idea of the species' distribution and population status.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

Bibliography [top]

Butynski, T. In press. Cercopithecus djamdjamensis. In: T. Butynski, J. Kalena and J. Kingdon (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Carpaneto, G. M. and Gippoliti, S. 1994. Primates of the Harenna Forest, Ethiopia. Primate Conservation 11: 12-15.

Dandelot, P. and Prevost, J. 1972. Contribution a l’etude des primates d’Ethiopie (simiens). Mammalia 36(4): 607–633.

Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Citation: Butynski, T.M., Gippoliti, S., Kingdon, J. & De Jong, Y. 2008. Chlorocebus djamdjamensis. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T4240A10699069. . Downloaded on 20 June 2018.
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