Chlorocebus djamdjamensis


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Chlorocebus djamdjamensis
Species Authority: Neumann, 1902
Common Name(s):
English Bale Monkey, Bale Mountains Grivet, Djam-djam
Cercopithecus aethiops subspecies djamdjamensis Neumann, 1902
Cercopithecus djamdjamensis Neumann, 1902
Taxonomic Notes: Listed by Grubb et al. (2003) as a subspecies of C. aethiops, but here treated as a separate species following Groves (2005). Groves (2005) includes this taxon in Chlorocebus, in contrast to Grubb et al. (2003) who retained it in Cercopithecus.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Butynski, T.M., Gippoliti, S., Kingdon, J. & De Jong, Y.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable as the range of this species is less than 20,000 km² with severe fragmentation and there is continuing decline due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation. The species occurs at low densities in bamboo forest, a very specialized and unusual habitat.
2000 Data Deficient
1996 Data Deficient

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Endemic to the highlands of Ethiopia, east of the Ethiopian Rift Valley in the Bale Mountains, where found at high elevations from 2,400 to 3,000 m asl (see Butynski in press).
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species was presumably more widespread and abundant in historic times. There is no information on population size, but it may be locally common in some areas (e.g., in Odobullu Forest at 6.87ºN, 40.17ºE; Butynski in press).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species has specialised habitat requirements as it is found in the bamboo forest zone of the Bale Mountains massif. Butynski (in press) summarizes the current state of knowledge of this diurnal, semi-terrestrial monkey.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat to this species is ongoing habitat loss and degradation. For example, the Harenna Forest, where the Bale Monkey is generally uncommon, is under threat from expanding human populations, fire, agriculture, and the removal of forest products such as bamboo, lumber, fuelwood, and charcoal. Persecution for crop raiding may also be a localised threat. There is suggestion that hybridization may occur with C. aethiops on the margins of its range, but there are no confirmed records as yet.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES and on Class B of the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. It is present in the proposed Harena-Kokosa National Forest Reserve, but which needs to be formally gazetted. Ongoing survey work in the Bale Mountains will hopefully reveal a better idea of the species' distribution and population status.

Bibliography [top]

Butynski, T. In press. Cercopithecus djamdjamensis. In: T. Butynski, J. Kalena and J. Kingdon (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Carpaneto, G. M. and Gippoliti, S. 1994. Primates of the Harenna Forest, Ethiopia. Primate Conservation 11: 12-15.

Dandelot, P. and Prevost, J. 1972. Contribution a l’etude des primates d’Ethiopie (simiens). Mammalia 36(4): 607–633.

Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Citation: Butynski, T.M., Gippoliti, S., Kingdon, J. & De Jong, Y. 2008. Chlorocebus djamdjamensis. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 31 August 2015.
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