Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Abies nephrolepis
Species Authority: (Trautv. ex Maxim.) Maxim.
Common Name(s):
English Hinggan Fir, Khinghan Fir
Abies sibirica Ledeb. variety nephrolepis Trautv. ex Maxim.
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-12-18
Assessor(s): Zhang, D, Katsuki, T. & Rushforth, K.
Reviewer(s): Farjon, A. & Thomas, P.
In the absence of any evidence for significant decline, Abies nephrolepis is assessed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2013 Least Concern (LC)
1998 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Recorded from the Russian Far East: from the Zeya River to the Sikhote Alin Range; NE China: Manchuria, Shaanxi, south to Hebei (Wutai Shan); North Korea.  In some interpretations it will occur in South Korea.
Countries occurrence:
China (Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi); Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Russian Federation (Amur, Khabarovsk, Primoryi)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:25000
Lower elevation limit (metres):500
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The species forms forests over a large region of northeast Asia.  The total population is thought to be declining due to logging.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This is a species of low to medium high mountains, occurring at elevations between 500 m and 700 m a.s.l. in E Siberia at the northern limit of its range, between 750 m and 2,000 m a.s.l. in NE China. This species grows on a variety of well drained mountain soils. The climate is cold, with short, cool and moist summers and long, cold winters. Most of the annual precipitation is snow. It is usually associated with other conifers, e.g. Pinus koraiensis and Picea jezoensis; also with Pinus pumila and Juniperus sabina var. davurica at higher elevations (maritime provinces of the Russian Far East); in the interior with Picea obovata, Larix gmelinii, Pinus sibirica or Abies sibirica. Betula spp. and Sorbus amurensis are common associated broad-leaved trees.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):50

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Hinggan Fir is an important timber tree in NE China and Korea. Its wood is used in carpentry and for plywood and veneer. The relatively small size of this tree on marginal sites makes exploitation in these areas less likely; the better, larger trees come from mixed conifer forests at middle elevations in the mountains. In horticulture, it was introduced to Great Britain in 1908 from the botanic garden in St. Petersburg, Russia. It remains a rarely planted species, which is susceptible to damage by late spring frosts in countries with an Atlantic maritime climate.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Logging is the primary threat, especially when accompanied by an increase in fire or grazing so that regeneration is inhibited or prevented.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Parts of the distribution of this species occur within protected areas, but the greater proportion is outside such reserves.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.2. Intentional use: (large scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

♦  Construction or structural materials
 Local : ✓   National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Farjon, A. 2010. Conifer Database (June 2008) In Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., eds). Reading, UK. Available at:

Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Citation: Zhang, D, Katsuki, T. & Rushforth, K. 2013. Abies nephrolepis. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42292A76095986. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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