Rusa unicolor


Bibliography [top]

Ables, E. D. and Ramsey, C. W. 1974. Indian mammals on Texas rangelands. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 71: 18-25.

Andheria, A., Karanth, K. U. and Kumar, N. S. 2007. Diet and prey profiles of three sympatric large carnivores in Bandipur Tiger Reserve in India. Journal of Zoology (London) 273: 169–175.

Azlan, J. M. 2006. Mammal diversity and conservation in a secondary forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 1013-1025.

Bali, A., Kumar, A. and Krishnaswamy, J. 2007. The mammalian communities in coffee plantations around a protected area in the Western Ghats, India. Biological Conservation 139: 93-102.

Bennett, E. L. and Dahaban, Z. 1995. Wildlife response to disturbances in Sarawak and their implications for forest management. In: R. B. Primack and T. E. Lovejoy (eds), Ecology, conservation and management of South-East Asian rainforests, pp. 66-86. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA, and London, UK.

Bennett, E. L. and Gumal, M. 2001. The interrelationships of commercial logging, hunting, and wildlife in Sarawak. In: R. A. Fimbel, A. Grajal and J. G. Robinson (eds), The cutting edge: conserving wildlife in logged tropical forest, pp. 359-374. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

Bentley, A. 1978. An introduction to the deer of Australia. Koetong Trust Service, Victoria, Australia.

Davies, G., Heydon, M., Leader-Williams, N., MacKinnon, J. and Newing, H. 2001. The effects of logging on tropical forest ungulates. In: R. A. Fimbel, A. Grajal and J. G. Robinson (eds), The cutting edge: conserving wildlife in logged tropical forest, Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

Delacour, J. 1940. Liste provisoire des mammifères de l'Indochine française. Mammalia 4: 20-29, 46-58.

Dersu Associates. 2007. Baseline wildlife survey of the Nakai plateau, 2006–2007. Unpublished report by Dersu Associates to the Nam Theun 2 Power Company, Vientiane.

Dinerstein, E. 1979. An ecological survey of the Royal Karnali Bardia Wildlife Reserve, Nepal 2. Habitat and animal interactions. Biological Conservation 16(4): 265-300.

Freeland, W. J. 1990. Large Herbivorous Mammals: Exotic Species in Northern Australia. Journal of Biogeography 17: 445-449.

Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 2004. The national action plan to strengthen the control of trade in wild fauna and flora to 2010. Prime Minister’s Office, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Grieser Johns, A. (ed.). 2000. Pu Mat: a biodiversity survey of a Vietnamese protected area. Social Forestry and Nature Conservation in Nghe An Province, SFNC Project, Vinh, Nghe An Province, Vietnam.

Groves, C. 2003. Taxonomy of ungulates of the Indian Subcontinent. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 100(2-3): 341-361.

Groves, C. 2006. The genus Cervus in eastern Eurasia. European Journal of Wildlife Research 52: 14-22.

Groves, C.P. and Grubb, P. 1987. Relationships of Living Deer. In: C. Wemmer (ed.), Biology and Management of the Cervidae, pp. 1-40. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C., USA.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

Heydon, M. J. 1994. The ecology and management of rain forest ungulates in Sabah, Malaysia: implications for forest disturbance. Institute of Tropical Biology, University of Aberdeen, ODA/NERC, Aberdeen, UK.

Hiremath, A. J. and Sundaram, B. 2005. The fire-lantana cycle hypothesis in Indian forests. Conservation and Society 3: 26-42.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Jathanna, D., Karanth, K. U. and Johnsingh, A. J. T. 2003. Estimation of large herbivore densities in the tropical forests of southern India using distance sampling. Journal of Zoology (London) 261: 285.

Johnsingh, A. J. T. and Sankar, K. 1991. Food plants of chital, sambar and cattle on Mundanthurai plateau, Tamil Nadu, South India. Mammalia 55: 57-66.

Johnsingh, A. J. T., Qureshi, Q., Goyal, S. P., Rawat, G. S., Ramesh, K., David, A., Rajapandian, K. and Prasad, S. 2004. Conservation Status of Tiger and Associated Species in the Terai Arc Landscape, India.

Johnson, A. and Johnston, J. 2007. Biodiversity monitoring and enforcement project in the Nam Theun 2 watershed. Final report. Wildlife Conservation Society, Vientiane, Laos.

Johnson, A., Singh, S., Dongdala, M. and Vongsa, O. 2003. Wildlife hunting and use in the Nam Ha National Protected Area: implications for rural livelihoods and biodiversity conservation. Wildlife Conservation Society, Vientiane, Laos.

Johnson, A., Vongkhamheng, C., Hedemark, M. and Saythongdum, T. 2004. The status of Tiger, prey and human–Tiger conflict in the Nam Et–Phou Louey national protected area. Wildlife Conservation Society, Vientiane, Laos.

Johnson, D. H. 1999. The insignificance of statistical significance testing. Journal of Wildlife Management 63: 763–772.

Karanth, K. K., Curran, L. M. and Reuning-Scherer, J. D. 2006. Village size and forest disturbance in Bhadra Wildlife sanctuary, Western Ghats, India. Biological Conservation 128: 147-157.

Karanth, K. U. and Karanth, K. K. 2007. Free to move: conservation and voluntary resettlements in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. WCS Working Papers 29: 48–59.

Karanth, K. U. and Nichols, J. D. 2000. Ecological status and conservation of tigers in India. Centre for Wildlife Studies, Bangalore, India.

Kawanishi, K. and Sunquist, M. E. 2004. Conservation status of tigers in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. Biological Conservation 120(3): 329-344.

Kelton, S. D. and Skipworth, J. P. 1987. Food of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) in a Manawatu (New Zealand) flax swamp. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 10: 149-152.

Khan, J. A., Chellam, R., Rodgers, W. A. and Johnsingh, A. J. T. 1996. Ungulate densities and biomass in the tropical dry deciduous forests of Gir, Gujarat, India. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12(1): 149.

Khan, M. A. R. 1985. Mammals of Bangladesh: a field guide. Nazma Reza, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Kumara, H. N. and Singh, M. 2004. The influence of differing hunting practices on the relative abundance of mammals in two rainforest areas of the Western Ghats, India. Oryx 38: 321–327.

Kumar, N. S. 2000. Ungulate density and biomass in the tropical semi-arid forest of Ranthambore, India. Pondicherry University.

Kushwaha, S. P. S., Khan, A., Habibi, B., Quadri, A. and Singh, A. 2004. Evaluation of Sambar and Muntjak (sic) habitats using geostatistical modelling. Current Science 86: 1390-1400.

Lekagul, B. and Mcneely, J. A. 1988. Mammals of Thailand. White Lotus Press, Bangkok, Thailand.

Lever, C. 1985. Naturalized mammals of the world. Longman, London, England, UK.

Lewis, J. C., Flynn, L. B., Marchinton, R. L., Shea, S. M. and Marchinton, E. M. 1990. Part I : Introduction, study area description and Literature review. Ecology of sambar deer on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, pp. 1-12. Bulletin of Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Le Xuan Canh, Pham Trong Anh, Duckworth, J. W., Vu Ngoc Thanh and Lic Vuthy. 1997. A survey of large mammals in Dak Lak Province, Viet Nam. Unpublished report to IUCN and WWF. Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Lynam, A. J. 2003. A National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar. Myanmar Forest Department, Ministry of Forestry, Yangon, Myanmar.

Lynam, A. J., Kreetiyutanont, K. and Mather, R. 2001. Conservation status and distribution of the Indochinese tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) and other large mammals in a forest complex in northeastern Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 49: 61-75.

Lynam, A. J., Round, P. D. and Brockelman, W. Y. 2006. Status of birds and large mammals in Thailand's Dong Phayayen - Khao Yai Forest Complex. Biodiversity Research and Training, Bangkok, Thailand.

Madhusudan, M. D. 2004. Recovery of wild large herbivores following livestock decline in a tropical Indian wildlife reserve. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 858–869.

Madhusudan, M. D. 2005. The global village: linkages between international coffee markets and grazing by livestock in a south Indian wildlife reserve. Conservation Biology 19: 411–420.

Madhusudan, M. D. and Karanth, K. U. 2002. Local hunting and the conservation of large mammals in India. Ambio 31(1): 49-54.

Martin C. 1977. Status and ecology of the Barasingha (Cervus duvauceli branderi) in Kanha National Park (India). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 74: 60-132.

Matsubayashi, H. and Sukor, J. R. A. 2005. Activity and habitat use of two sympatric mouse-deer species, Tragulus javanicus and Tragulus napu, in Sabah, Malaysia, Borneo. Malayan Nature Journal 57: 235–241.

Matsubayashi, H., Lagan, P., Majalap, N., Tangah, J., Sukor, J. R. A. and Kitayama, K. 2007. Importance of natural licks for the mammals in Bornean inland tropical rain forests. Ecological Research 22: 742-748.

Maxwell, A., Chea Nareth, Duong Kong, Timmins, R. and Duckworth, J. W. 2007. Hog Deer (Axis porcinus) confirmed in the wild in eastern Cambodia. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 54: 227–237.

Ngampongsai, C. 1987. Habitat use by the sambar (Cervus unicolor) in Thailand: A case study for Khao-Yai National Park. In: C.M.Wemme. (ed.), Biology and management of the Cervidae., pp. 289-298. Washington D.C., Smithsonian Institution Press.

Ngoprasert, D., Lynam, A. J. and Gale, G. A. 2007. Human disturbance affects habitat use and behaviour of Asiatic Leopard in Kaeng Krachan National Park, Thailand. Oryx. 41: 343-351.

O'Brien, T. G., Kinnaird, M. F. and Wibisono, H. T. 2003. Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Animal Conservation 6: 131-139.

Ohtaishi, N. and Gao, Y. T. 1990. A review of the distribution of all species of deer (Tragulidae, Moschidae and Cervidae) in China. Mammal Review 20(2-3): 125-144.

Polet, G. and Ling, S. 2004. Protecting mammal diversity: opportunities and constraints for pragmatic conservation management in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. Oryx 38(2): 186.

Porwal, M. C., Roy, P. S. and Chellamuthu, V. 1996. Wildlife habitat analysis for 'sambar' (Cervus unicolor) in Kanha National Park using remote sensing. International Journal of Remote Sensing 14: 2683–2697.

Richardson, W. A. 1972. A natural history survey of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) on the powerhorn ranch calhoun country, Texas. Texas A & M University.

Rijksen, H. D. 1978. A field study on Sumatran Orang utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii Lesson, 1827): ecology, behaviour and conservation. Nature Conservation Department, Agricultural University of Wageningen, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Sankar, K. 1994. The ecology of three large sympatric herbivores (Chital, sambar and nilgai) with special reference for reserve management in Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan. University of Rajasthan.

Sankar, K. and Acharya, B. 2004. Sambar (Cervus unicolor Kerr, 1792). ENVIS Bulletin (Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun) 7: 163–170.

Santiapillai, C. and Wijeyamohan, S. 2003. The impact of civil war on wildlife in Sri Lanka. Current Science 84: 1182–1183.

Schaller, G. 1967. The deer and the tiger. University ofChicago Press, Chicago, USA.

Semiadi, G., Adhi, I. G. M. J. and Muchsinin, M. 2004. Perburuan dan pemanfaatan rusa Sambar (Cervus unicolor) di Kalimantan Timur [The hunting and utilization of Sambar in East Kalimantan]. [In Indonesian]. Jurnal Peternakan dan Lingkungan (Univ. Andalas) 10: 25-29.

Semiadi, G., Barry, T. N., Muir, P. D. and Hodgson, J. 1995. Dietary preferences of Sambar (Cervus unicolor) and Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) offered browse, forage legume and grass species. Journal of Agricultural Science 125: 99-107.

Sheng, H. I. and Ohtaishi, N. 1993. The status of deer in China. In: N. Ohtaishi and H. I. Sheng (eds), Deer of China: Biology and Management, pp. 8. Elsevier, Oxford, UK.

Slee, K. J. 1984. The Sambar deer in Victoria. Deer, pp. 559-72. University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Smith, A. and Xie, Y. 2008. The Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Steinmetz, R., Chutipong, W., Seuaturien, N. and Cheungsa-ad, E. 2008. Community structure of large mammals in tropical montane and lowland forest in the Tenasserim–Dawna mountains, Thailand. Biotropica 40: 344-353.

Steinmetz, R., Seuaturien, N., Chutipong, W., Chamnankit, C. and Phoonjampa, R. 2007. The ecology and conservation of tigers, other large carnivores, and their prey in Kuiburi National Park, Thailand. WWF Thailand and Kuiburi National Park, Bangkok, Thailand.

Tilson, R., Defu, H., Muntifering, J. and Nyhus, P. J. 2004. Dramatic decline of wild South China tigers Panthera tigris amoyensis: Field survey of priority tiger reserves. Oryx 38: 40-47.

Timmins, R. J. 2006. An assessment of the biodiversity conservation significance of the Mekong Ramsar site, Stung Treng, Cambodia. Mekong Wetlands Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Use Programme, Stung Treng, Cambodia.

Timmins, R. J. and Duckworth, J. W. 1999. Status and conservation of douc langurs (Pygathrix nemaeus) in Laos. International Journal of Primatology 20: 469–489.

Timmins, R. J. and Men Soriyun. 1998. A wildlife survey of the Tonle San and Tonle Srepok river basins in northeastern Cambodia. Fauna and Flora International and Wildlife Protection Office., Hanoi, Vietnam and Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Timmins, R. J. and Ou Rattanak. 2001. The importance of Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary and adjacent areas for the conservation of tigers and other key species. WWF Indochina Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam and Phonm Penh, Cambodia.

Timmins, R. J. and Robichaud, W. G. 2005. Birds and mammals of conservation concern in the area of the proposed Nam Theun 1 Hydropower Project – assessment and recommendations. Report to Electrowatt-Ekono Ltd.

Timmins, R. J., Do Tuoc, Trinh Viet Cuong and Hendrichsen, D. K. 1999. A preliminary assessment of the conservation importance and conservation priorities of the Phong Nha-Ke Bang proposed National Park, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. Fauna and Flora International-Indochina Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Timmins, R. J., Pech Bunnat and Prum Sovanna. 2003. An assessment of the conservation importance of the Western Siem Pang area, Stung Treng Province, Cambodia. WWF Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Timmins, R. J., Tuoc, D. and Viet Cuong Trinh. 2001. An assessment of the conservation importance of the Huong Son (Annamite) forest, Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam, based on the results of a field survey for large mammals and birds. Center for Biodiversity and Conservation at the American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

Tordoff, A. W., Timmins, R. J., Maxwell, A., Huy Keavuth, Lic Vuthy and Khou Eang Hourt (eds). 2005. Biological assessment of the Lower Mekong Dry Forests Ecoregion. pp. 192 pp.. WWF Greater Mekong Programme., Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Trisurat, Y., Eiumnoh, A., Tharnchai, P. and Phongpanit, K. 1996. A geographical study of wildlife abundances in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Report to Thailand Research Fund by the School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand.

Tungittiplakorn, W. and Dearden, P. 2002. Hunting and wildlife use in some Hmong communities in northern Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 50: 57–73.

Van Mourik, S. and Schurig, V. 1985. Hybridization between Sambar (Cervus (Rusa) unicolor) and Rusa (Cervus (Rusa) timorensis) deer. Zoologischer Anzeiger 214: 177-184.

Walston, J. L. 2001. Biodiversity, the life of Cambodia – Cambodian biodiversity status report 2001. In: J. D. Smith (ed.), Kangaroo-rats and other mammals of Cambodia, pp. 135-152. Cambodia Biodiversity Enabling Activity, Food and Agriculture Organisation, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Citation: Timmins, R.J., Steinmetz, R., Sagar Baral, H., Samba Kumar, N., Duckworth, J.W., Anwarul Islam, Md., Giman, B., Hedges, S., Lynam, A.J., Fellowes, J., Chan, B.P.L. & Evans, T. 2008. Rusa unicolor. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <>. Downloaded on 17 April 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided