Potamochoerus porcus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Suidae

Scientific Name: Potamochoerus porcus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Red River Hog
French Potamochère D' Afrique

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Querouil, S. & Leus, K.
Reviewer(s): Leus, K. ( Pig, Peccary & Hippo Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Listed as Least Concern as the species is relatively widespread, common, and there are no major threats believed to be resulting in a significant population decline. However, hunting has led to localized declines in some parts of its range, so populations should be monitored carefully.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The Red River Hog is widely, but patchily, distributed through the West and Central African rainforest belt, from Senegal in the west, throughout the Guinea-Congo forest to at least west of the Albertine Rift. Further east and south-east, replaced by the Bushpig, although the precise borders between the ranges of the two species remain unclear. There are no confirmed records from Sudan or Chad, though they may occur in extreme south-western Sudan (Leus and Vercammen in press). There are also as yet no reliable records from The Gambia, which is just outside their natural range (Grubb et al. 1998). There is no confirmation of their presence on Bioko Island.
Countries occurrence:
Benin; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Mali; Nigeria; Senegal; Togo; Uganda
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Recorded densities for Red River Hogs vary greatly but typically range between 1-6 individuals / km² (Leus and Vercammen in press), although a density of 18.4/km² was recorded from galleries and bosquets in the savanna ecotone of Lopé Reserve, Gabon (Tutin et al. 1997). Periodic aggregations on ephemeral resources (such as masting fruit trees) might explain these higher estimates.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Typically associated with rainforest and gallery forest, but also found in dry forest, savanna woodland and cultivated areas, although usually in close proximity to the rainforest (Leus and Vercammen in press). Like the Bushpig, Red River Hogs are highly adaptable and may even benefit from the opening up of former forested areas by the creation of secondary habitats, the provision of cultivated foods, and reductions in the numbers of their natural predators (Vercammen et al. 1993).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat to this species is hunting for subsistence purposes, as an agricultural pest, or because it is a vector of livestock diseases, and for the commercial bushmeat trade (Vercammen et al. 1993). Together with the duikers, it is one of the most hunted species in the Congo Basin (Wilkie and Carpenter 1999). A significant effect of hunting on Red River Hog densities was observed in southern Gabon (Laurance et al. 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Red River hogs are present in many protected areas across their range.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Marginal  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Grubb, P., Jones, T.S., Davies, A.G., Edberg, E., Starin, E.D. and Hill, J.E. 1998. Mammals of Ghana, Sierra Leone and The Gambia. Trendrine Press, Zennor, St Ives, Cornwall, UK.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Lahm, S. 1990. Impact of human activity on antelope populations in Gabon. IUCN/SSC Antelope Specialist Group Gnusletter 10(1): 7-8.

Laurance, W.F., Croes, B.M., Tchignoumba, L., Lahm, S. A., Alonso, A., Lee, M.E., Campbell, P. and Ondzeano, C. 2006. Impacts of roads and hunting on Central African rainforest mammals. Conservation Biology 20(4): 1251-1261.

Leus, K. and Vercammen, P. In press. Potamochoerus porcus. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Morgan, B. J. 2007. Group size, density and biomass of large mammals in the Reserve de Faune du Petit Loango, Gabon. African Journal of Ecology 45: 508-518.

Tutin, C. E. G. , White, L. J. T. and Mackanga-Missandzou, A. 1997. The use of rain forest mammals of natural forest fragments in an equatorial African Savanna. Conservation Biology 11(5): 1190-1203.

Vercammen, P., Seydack, A. H. W. and Oliver, W. L. R. 1993. The Bush Pigs (Potamochoerus larvatus and P. porcus). In: W. L. R. Oliver (ed.), Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 93-101. IUCN/SSC Pigs and Peccaries Specialist Group - IUCN/SSC Hippo Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Wilkie, D.S. and Carpenter, J.F. 1999. Bushmeat hunting in the Congo Basin. An assessment of impact and options for mitigation. Biodiversity Conservation 8: 927-945.

Citation: Querouil, S. & Leus, K. 2008. Potamochoerus porcus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T41771A10558857. . Downloaded on 26 June 2016.
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