Addison, R. F., Brodie, P. F. and Zinck, M. E. 1984. DDT has declined more than PCBs in eastern canadian seals during the 1970s. Environmental Science and Technology 18: 935-937.
Bloch, D., Mikkelsen, B. and Ofstad, L. H. 2000. Marine mammals in Faroese waters with special attention to the south-south-eastern sector of the region. Available at: www.foib.fo/foibportal/desktopdefault.aspx?tabid=113.
Daoust, P. Y., Haines, D. M., Thorsen, J., Duignan, P. J. and Geraci, J. R. 1993. Phocine distemper in a harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 29: 1114-117.
Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2005. Atlantic Seal Hunt 2003 Management Plan. Available at: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/seal-phoque/reports-rapports/mgtplan-plangest2003/mgtplan-plangest2003_e.htm..
Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2006. Frequently Asked Questions About Canada's Seal Hunt. Available at: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/seal-phoque/faq_e.htm..
Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2006. The Canadian Seal Hunt - A Timeline. Available at: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/seal-phoque/reports-rapports/facts-faits/facts-faits_tl_e.htm..
Derocher, A. E., Andersen, M. and Wiig, Ø. 2002. Diet composition of polar bears in Svalbard and the western Barents Sea. Polar Biology 25: 448-452.
Duignan, P. J., Nielsen, O., House, C., Kovacs, K. M., Duffy, N., Early, G., Sadove, S., St. Aubin, D. J., Rima, B. K. and Geraci, J. R. 1997. Epizootiology of morbillivirus infection in harp, hooded, and ringed seals from the Canadian Arctic and western Atlantic. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33: 7-19.
Folkow, L. P., Nordoy, E. S. and Blix, A. S. 2004. Distribution and diving behaviour of harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) from the Greenland Sea stock. Polar Biology 27: 281-298.
Friedlaender, A. S., Johnston, D. W., Fink, S. L. and Lavigne, D. M. 2007. Variation in ice cover on the east coast of Canada, February-March, 1969-2006: implications for harp and hooded seals. IFAW Technical Report 2007-1.
Harris, D. E., Lelli, B. and Jakush, G. 2002. Harp seal records from the southern Gulf of Maine: 1997-2001. Northeastern Naturalist 9: 331-340.
Haug, T., Kroyer, A. B., Nilssen, K. T., Ugland, K. I. and Aspholm, P. E. 1991. Harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) invasions in Norwegian coastal waters: age composition and feeding habits. ICES Journal of Marine Science 48: 363-371.
Haug, T., Nilssen, K. T. and Lindblom, L. 2000. First independent feeding of harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) pups in the Greenland Sea. In: G. A. Vikingsson and F. O. Kapel. (eds), Minke whales, harp and hooded seals: major predators in the North Atlantic ecosystem, pp. 40-49. NAMMCO Scientific Publication.
Haug, T., Stenson,G. B., Cockeron, P. J. and Nilssen, K. T. 2006. Estimation of harp seal (Pagophilus groenaldicus) pup production in the North Atlantic completed; results from surveys in the Greenland Sea in 2002. ICES Journal of Marine Science 63: 95-104.
Heptner, V. G., Chapskii, K. K., Arsen’ev, V. A. and Sokolov, V. E. 1996. Mammals of the Soviet Union. Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation.
Johnston, D. W., Friedlaender, A. S., Torres, L. G. and Lavigne, D. M. 2005. Variation in sea ice cover on the east coast of Canada from1969 to 2002: climate variability and implications for harp and hooded seals. Climate Research 29: 209-222.
Johnston, D. W., Meisenheimer, P. and Lavigne, D. M. 2000. An evaluation of management objectives for Canada’s commercial harp seal hunt, 1996-1998. Conservation Biology 14: 729-737.
Kapel, F. O. 2000. Feeding habits of harp and hooded seals in Greenland waters. NAMMCO Scientific Publications 2: 50-64.
Kovacs, K. M. 1987. Maternal behaviour and early behavioral ontogeny of harp seals, Phoca groenlandica. Animal Behaviour 35: 844-855.
Kovacs, K. M. and Innes, S. I. 1990. The impact of tourism on harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 26: 15-26.
Kovacs, K. M. and Lavigne, D. M. 1985. Neonatal growth and organ allometry of Northwest Atlantic harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). Canadian Journal of Zoology 63: 2793-2799.
Kovacs, K. M. and Lydersen, C. 2008. Climate change impacts on seals and whales in the North Atlantic Arctic and adjacent shelf seas. Science Progress 91(2): 117-150.
Kovacs, K. M., Lavigne, D. M. and Innes, S. I. 1991. Mass transfer efficiency between harp seal Phoca groenlandica mothers and their pups during lactation. Journal of Zoology (London) 223: 213-221.
Lacoste, K. N. and Stenson, G. B. 2000. Winter distribution of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) off eastern Newfoundland and southern Labrador. Polar Biolgy 23: 805-811.
Laidre, K. L., Stirling, I., Lowry, L.F., Wiig, Ø., Heide-Jørgensen, M. P. and Ferguson, S.H. 2008. Quantifying the sensitivity of Arctic marine mammals to climate-induced habitat change. Ecological Applications 18 (Supplement: Arctic Marine Mammals): 97-125.
Lavigne, D. M. 1999. Estimating total kill of northwest Atlantic harp seals, 1994-1998. Marine Mammal Science 15: 871-879.
Lavigne, D. M. 2002. Harp seal Pagophilus groenlandicus. In: W. F. Perrin, B. Wursig and J. G. M. Thewissen (eds), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 560-562. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.
Lavigne, D. M. and Kovacs, K. M. 1988. Harps and hoods: ice-breeding seals of the northwest Atlantic. University of Waterloo Press, Ontario, Canada.
Lawson, J. W., Stenson, G. B. and McKinnon, D. G. 1995. Diet of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) in nearshore waters of the northwest Atlantic during 1990-1993. Canadian Journal of Zoology 73: 1805-1818.
Learmonth, J. A., Macleod, C. D., Santos, M. B., Pierce, G. J., Crick, H. Q. P. and Robinson, R. A. 2006. Potential effects of climate change on marine mammals. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 44: 431-464.
Lucas, Z. and Daoust, P.-Y. 2002. Large increases of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, since 1995. Polar Biology 25: 562-568.
Lydersen, C. and Kovacs, K. M. 1993. Diving behaviour of lactating harp seal, Phoca groenlandica, females from the Gulf of St Lawrence, Canada. Animal Behavior 46: 1213-1221.
Lydersen, C. and Kovacs, K. M. 1996. Energetics of lactation in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) from the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Journal of Comparative Physiology 166: 295-304.
Meisfjord, J. and Sundt, R. C. 1996. Genetic variation between populations of the harp seal, Phoca groenlandica. Journal of Marine Science 53: 89-95.
Nilssen, K. T., Haug, T. and Lindblom, C. 2001. Diet of weaned pups and seasonal variations in body condition of juvenile Barents Sea harp seals Phoca groenlandica. Marine Mammal Science 17(4): 926-936.
Norwegian Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs. 2006. Sealing in the southeast part of the Barents Sea and in the Greenland Sea by Jan Mayen. Available at: http://www.fisheries.no/marine_stocks/mammals/seals/Marine_stocks_mammals_seals.htm.
N-RFC. 2005. Report of the working group on seals. The 34th Session of the Joint Norwegian – Russian Fisheries Commission. Kaliningrad, Russia.
Perry, E. A., Stenson, G. B., Bartlett, S. E., Davidson, W. S. and Carr, S. M. 2000. DNA sequence analysis identifies genetically distinguishable populations of harp seals (Phoca groenlandicus) in the northwest and northeast Atlantic. Marine Biology 137: 53-58.
Potelov, V. A., Golikov, A. P. and Bondarev, V. A. 2003. Estimated pup production of harp seals Pagophilus groenlandicus in the White Sea, Russia in 2000. ICES Journal of Marine Science 60: 1012-1017.
Reijnders, P., Brasseur, S., van der Toorn, J., van der Wolf, P., Boyd, I., Harwood, J., Lavigne, D. and Lowry, L. 1993. Seals, fur seals, sea lions, and walrus. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN Seal Specialist Group.
Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World. Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas.
Ronald, K. and Healy, P. J. 1981. Harp seal Phoca groenlandica Erxleben, 1777. In: S. H. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds), Handbook of marine mammals, Volume 2: Seals, pp. 55-87. Academic Press.
Ronald, K., Frank, R. J., Dougan, J. L., Frank, R. and Braun, H. E. 1984. Pollutants in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). II. Heavy metals and selenium. Science of the Total Environment 38: 153-166.
Ronald, K., Frank, R. J., Dougan, J. L., Frank, R. and Braun, H. E. 1984. Pollutants in harp seals (Phoca groenlandica). I. Organochlorines. Science of the Total Environment 38: 133-152.
Scheffer, V. B. 1958. Seals, sea lions and walruses: A review of the Pinnipedia. Stanford University Press, Stanford, USA.
Sergeant, D. E. 1976. History and present status of populations of harp and hooded seals. Biological Conservation 10: 95-118.
Sjare, B. and Stenson, G. B. 2002. Estimating struck and lost rates for harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) in the Northwest Atlantic. Marine Mammal Science 18(3): 710-720.
St. Aubin, D. J. 1990. Physiologic and toxic effects on pinnipeds. In: J. R. Geraci and D. J. St. Aubin (eds), Sea mammals and oil: confronting the risks, pp. 103-127. Academic Press, New York, USA.
Stenson, G. B., Rivest, L. P., Hammill, M. O., Gosselin, J. F. and Sjare, B. 2003. Estimating pup production of harp seals, Pagophilus groenlandicus, in the Northwest Atlantic. Marine Mammal Science 19(1): 141-160.
Stewart, R. E. A., Stewart, B. E., Lavigne, D. M. and Miller, G. W. 1989. Fetal growth of Northwest Atlantic harp seals, Phoca groenlandica. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67: 2147-2157.
Stora, J. and Ericson, P. G. 2004. A prehistoric breeding population of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) in the Baltic Sea. Marin Mammal Science 20: 115-133.
Tynan, C. T. and DeMaster, D. P. 1997. Observations and predictions of Arctic climate change potential effects of marine mammals. Arctic 50: 308-322.
Van Bree, P. J. H. 1997. On extralimital records of Arctic seals (Mammalia, Pinnipedia) on the west European continental coast in the past and at present - a summary. Beaufortia 47: 153-156.
Waring, G. T., Josephson, E., Fairfield, C. P. and Maze-Foley, K. 2005. U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico marine mammal stock assessments – 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum. NOAA.
Wathne, J. A., Haug, T. and Lydersen, C. 2000. Prey preference and niche overlap of ringed seals Phoca hispida and harp seals P. groenlandica. Marine Ecology Progress Series 94: 233-239.
Woodley, T. H. and Lavigne, D. M. 1991. Incidental capture of pinnipeds in commercial fishing gear. International Marine Mammal Association Technical Report 91-01: 35 pp.
|Citation:||Kovacs, K. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) 2008. Pagophilus groenlandicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 August 2014.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided|