Zalophus californianus 


Bibliography [top]

Antonelis Jr., G. A., Fiscus, C. H. and Delong, R. L. 1984. Spring and summer prey of California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, at San Miguel Island, California, 1978-79. Fishery Bulletin 82(1): 67-76.

Arellano-Peralta, V.A. and Medrano-Gonzalez, L. 2015. Ecology, conservation and human history of marine mammals in the Gulf of California and Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico. Ocean & Coastal Management 104: 90-105.

Aurioles-Gamboa, D. and Camacho-Ríos, F.J. 2007. Diet and feeding overlap of two otariids, Zalophus californianus and Arctocephalus townsendi: Implications to survive environmental uncertainty. Aquatic Mammals 33(3): 315-326.

Aurioles-Gamboa, D. and Le Bœuf, B. J. 1991. Effects of the El Niño 1983 on the California sea lion population in México. In: F. Trillmich and K. A. Ono (eds), Pinnipeds and El Niño: Responses to environmental stress, pp. 112-118. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.

Aurioles-Gamboa, D., Fox, C., Sinsel, F. and Tanos, G. 1984. Prey of Californian sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Bay of La Paz, Baja California. Journal of Mammalogy 65: 519-521.

Aurioles-Gamboa, D., García-Rodríguez, F., Ramírez-Rodríguez y, M. and Hernández-Camacho, C. 2003. Interactions between the California sea lion and the artisanal fishery in La Paz Bay, Gulf of California, Mexico. Ciencias Marinas 29(3): 357-370.

Aurioles-Gamboa, D., Sinsel F., Fox C., Alvarado E. and Maravilla, O. 1983. Winter migration of subadult male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the southern part of Baja California. Journal of Mammalogy 64: 513-518.

Avalos-Téllez R., Ramírez-Pfeiffer, C., Sánchez-Domínguez, C., Zavala- Norzagaray, A., Hernández-Castro, R., Arellano-Reynoso, B., Suárez-Güemes, F., Díaz-Aparicio, E., Aguirre, A.A. and Aurioles-Gamboa, D. 2014. Infection of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with terrestrial Brucella spp. The Veterinary Journal 202: 198-200.

Bohórquez-Herrera, J., Hernández-Camacho C.J., Aurioles-Gamboa, D. and Cruz- Escalona, V. 2014. Plasticity in the agonistic behaviour of male California sea lions, Zalophus californianus. Animal Behavior 89: 31-38.

Boveng, P. 1988. Status of the California sea lion population on the U.S. west coast. Administrative Report LJ-88-07. Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, P.O. Box 271, La Jolla, CA 92038.

Bowen, L. B., Aldridge, M., DeLong, R., Melin, S., Godinez, C., Zavala, A., Gulland, F., Lowenstine, L., Stott, J. L. and Johnson, M. L. 2005. MHC gene configuration variation in geographically disparate populations of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Molecular Ecology 15: 529-533.

Braje, J.T. and DeLong, R.L. 2009. Ancient sea mammal exploitation on the south coast of San Miguel Island. In: C.C. Damiani and D.K. Garcelon (eds), Proceedings of the 7th California Islands Symposium. Institute for Wildlife Studies, Arcata, CA., pp. 43-53.

Brunner, S. 2004. Fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae): identification of species and taxonomic review. Systematics and Biodiversity 1: 339-439.

Carretta J.V., Forney, K.A., Lowry, M.S., Barlow, J., Baker, J., Hanson, B. and Muto, M.M. 2007. U.S. Pacific Marine Mammal Stock Assessments: 2007. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC-414.

Carretta J.V. Oleson E., Weller D.W., Lang A.R., Forney K.A., Baker J., Hanson B., Martien K., Muto M.M., Orr A.J., Huber H., Lowry M.S., Barlow J., Lynch D., Carswell L., Brownell R.L. Jr. and Mattila D.K. 2014. U.S. Pacific Marine Mammal Stock Assessments; 2013. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration Technical Memorandum NMFS-SWFSC-532.

Cass, V. L. 1985. Exploitation of California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, prior to 1972. Marine Fisheries Review 47(1): 36-38.

Delong, R.L, Gilmartin, W.G. and Simpson, J.G. 1973. Premature births in California Sea Lions: association with high organochlorine pollutant residue levels. Science 181: 1168-1170.

Demaster, D., Miller, D., Henderson, J. R. and Coe, J. M. 1985. Conflicts between marine mammals and fisheries off the coast of California. In: J. R. Beddington, R. J. H. Beverton and D. M. Lavigne (eds), Marine mammals and fisheries, pp. 111-118. George Allen & Unwin.

Demaster, D. P., Miller, D. J., Goodman, D., Delong, R. L. and Stewart, B. S. 1982. Assessment of California sea lion fishery interactions. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural. Resources Conference 47: 253-264.

Francis, J. M. and Heath, C. B. 1991. Population abundance, pup mortality, and copulation frequency in the California sea lion in relation to the 1983 El Niño. In: F. Trillmich and K. A. Ono (eds), Pinnipeds and El Niño: Responses to environmental stress, pp. 119-128. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

Fry, D.H. 1939. A winter influx of sea lions from lower California. California Fish and Game 25: 245-250.

García-Aguilar, M.C. and Aurioles-Gamboa, D. 2003a. Breeding season of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California. Aquatic Mammals 29(1): 67-76.

García-Aguilar, M.C. and Aurioles-Gamboa, D. 2008b. Cuidado materno en el lobo marino de California de Los Islotes, Golfo de California, México. Ciencias Marinas 29(4): 573-583.

García-Rodríguez, F. and Aurioles-Gamboa, D. 2004. Spatial and temporal variations in the diet of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, México. Fishery Bulletin 102(1): 47-62.

Gerber, L.R. and Hilborn, R. 2001. Catastrophic events and recovery from low densities in populations of otariids: implications for risk of extinction. Mammal Review 31(2): 131-150.

Goldstein, T., Zabka, T.S., DeLong, R.L., Wheeler, E.A., Ylitalo, G., Bargu, S., Silver, M., Leighfield, T., Van Dolah, F., Langlois, G., Sidor, I., Dunn, J.L. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2009. The role of domoic acid in abortion and premature parturition of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) on San Miguel Island, California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45: 91-108.

González-Suárez, M., Aurioles-Gamboa, D. and Gerber, L.R. 2010. Past exploitation of California sea lions did not lead to a genetic bottleneck in the Gulf of California. Ciencias Marinas 36(3): 199-211.

González-Suárez, M., Flatz, R., Aurioles-Gamboa, D., Hedrick, P.W. and Gerber L.R. 2009. Isolation by distance among California sea lion populations in Mexico: redefining management stocks. Molecular Biology 18: 1088-1099.

Harcourt, R., Aurioles, D. and Sanchez, J. 1994. Entanglement of California sea lions at Los Islotes, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 10: 122-125.

Hernández-Camacho C., Aurioles-Gamboa, D. and Gerber, L.R. 2008b. Age-specific birth rates of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 24(3): 664-676.

Hernández-Camacho C., Aurioles-Gamboa, D., Laake, J. and Gerber, L.R. 2008a. Survival rates of the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, in Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 89(4): 1059-1066.

Howorth, P.C. 1994. Entanglement of marine mammals in synthetic debris. In: W.L. Halvorson and G.J. Maender (eds), The Fourth California Islands Symposium: update on the status of resources, pp. 111-121.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Keith, E.O., Condit, R.S. and Le Boeuf, B.J. 1984. California sea lions breeding at Ano Nuevo Island, California. Journal of Mammalogy 65: 695.

King, J.E. 1964. Seals of the World. British Museum (Natural History), London.

Le Boeuf, B. J., Aurioles, D., Condit, R., Fox, C., Gisiner, R., Romero, R. and Sinsel, F. 1983. Size and distribution of the California sea lion population in Mexico. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 43: 77-85.

Le Boeuf, B.J., Giesy, J.P., Kannan, K., Kajiwara, N., Tanabe, S. and Debier, C. 2002. Organochloride pesticides in California sea lions revisited. BMC Ecology 2(11): 8.

Lloyd-Smith, J.O., Greig, D., Ghneim, G., Hietala, S., Palmer, L., St. Leger, J., Grenfell, B.T. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2007. Cyclical changes in seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions: endemic and epidemic disease in one host species? BMC Infectious Diseases 7: 125.

Lowry, M.S. and Carretta, J.V. 1999. Market squid (Loligo opalescens) in the diet of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in southern California (1981-1995). CalCOFl Report, Volume 40, pages 196-207.

Lowry, M.S., Boveng, P., DeLong, R.J., Oliver, C.W., Stewart, B.S., DeAnda, H. and Barlow, J. 1992. Status of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus californianus) population in 1992. Admininistrative Report LJ-92-32. Southwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, La Jolla, CA 92038.

Lowry, M. S., Oliver, C. W., Macky, C. and Wexler, J. B. 1990. Food habits of Californian sea lions, Zalophus californianus, at San Clemente Island, California, 1981- 1986. Fishery Bulletin 88: 509-521.

Lowry, M. S., Stewart, B. S., Heath, C. B., Yochem, P. K. and Francis, J. M. 1991. Seasonal and annual variability in the diet of California sea lions Zalophus californianus at San Nicholas Island, California, 1981-86. Fishery Bulletin 89: 331-336.

Maldonado, J. E., Davila, F. O., Stewart, B. S., Geffen, E. and Wayne, R. K. 1995. Intraspecific genetic differentiation in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from southern California and the Gulf of California. Marine Mammal Science 11: 46-58.

Maniscalco J. M., Wynne, K., Pitcher, K. W., Hanson, M. B., Melin, S. R. and Atkinson, S. 2004. The Occurrence of California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) in Alaska. Aquatic Mammals 30(3): 427-433.

Mate, B.R. 1975. Annual migrations of the sea lions Eumetopias jubatus and Zalophus californianus along the Oregon Coast. Rapp. P. V. Reun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 169: 455-461.

Melin, S. R. 2002. The foraging ecology and reproduction of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus californianus). University of Minnesota.

Melin, S.R. and DeLong, R.L. 2000. At-sea distribution and diving behavior of California sea lion females from San Miguel Island, California. Proceedings of the Fifth California Islands Symposium: 407-412.

Melin, S.R., DeLong, R.L. and Siniff, D.B. 2008. The effects of El Niño on the foraging behavior of lactating California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) during the nonbreeding season. Canadian Journal of Zoology 86(192-206).

Melin, S.R., DeLong, R.L., Thomason J.R. and VanBlaricom G.R. 2000. Attendance patterns of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) females and pups during the non-breeding season at San Miguel Island. Marine Mammal Science 16: 169-185.

Milanés-Salinas, M.A. 2012. Abundancia y distribución del lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus) en el Pacífico Mexicano. Tesis de Maestría en Oceanografía Costera, Fac. de Ciencias Marinas, UABC.

Newsome, S. D., Koch, P. L., Etnier, M. A. and Aurioles, D. G. 2006. Using carbon and nitrogen isotope values to investigate maternal strategies in Northeast Pacific otariids. Marine Mammal Science 22(3): 556-572.

Odell, D.K. 1971. Censuses of pinnipeds breeding on the California Channel Islands. Journal of Mammalogy 52: 187-190.

Odell, D.K. 1975. Breeding biology of the California sea lion Zalophus californianus. Rapp. P. V. Reun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 169: 374-378.

Orr, A.J., VanBlaricom, G.R., DeLong, R.L., Cruz-Escalona, V.H. and Newsome,S.D. 2011. Intraspecific comparison of diet of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) assessed using fecal and stable isotope analyses. Canadian Journal of Zoology 89(2): 109-122.

Peterson, R. S. and Bartholomew, G. A. 1967. Natural history and behavior of the California sea lion. American Society of Mammalian Species, Allen Press.

Porcasi, J.F., Jones, T.L. and Raab, L.M. 2000. Trans-Holocene marine mammal exploitation on San Clemente Island: A tragedy of the commons revisited. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 19: 200-220.

Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas.

Sakahira, F. and Niimi, M. 2007. Ancient DNA Analysis of the Japanese Sea Lion (Zalophus japonicus japonicus Peters, 1866): Preliminary results using mitochondrial control-region sequences. Zoological Sciences 24: 81-85.

Scholin, C.A., Gulland, F., Doucette, G.J., Benson, S., Busman, M., Chavez, F.P., Cordaro, J., DeLong, R., De Vogelaere, A., Harvey, J., Haulena, M., Lefebvre, K., Lipscomb, T., Loscutoff, S., Lowenstine, L.J., Marin, R. III, Miller, P.E., McLellan, W.A., Moeller, P.D.R., Powell, C.L., Rowles, T., Silvagni, P., Silver, M., Spraker, T., Trainer, V. and Van Dolah F.M. 2000. Mortality of sea lions along the central California coast linked to a toxic diatom bloom. Nature 403: 80-84.

Schramm, Y., Mesnick, S.L., de la Rosa, J., Palacios, D.M., Lowry, M.S., Aurioles-Gamboa, D. and Escorza-Treviño, S. 2009. Phylogeography of California and Galápagos sea lions and population structure within the California sea lion. Marine Biology 156(7): 1375-1387.

Shirasago-German, B., Perez-Lezama, E.L., Chavez, E.A. and Garcia-Morales, R. 2015. Influence of El Nino-Southern Oscillation on the population structure of a sea lion breeding colony in the Gulf of California. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 154: 69-76.

Silvagni P. A., Lowenstine L. J., Spraker T., Lipscomb T. P. and Gulland F. M. 2005. Pathology of domoic acid toxicity in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Pathology 42(2): 184-91.

Stewart, B. S. and Yochem, P. K. 1987. Entanglement of pinnipeds in synthetic debris and fishing net and line fragments at San Nicolas and San Miguel island, California, 1978-1986. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18: 336-339.

Szteren, D., Aurioles, D. and Gerber, L. 2006. Population status and trends of the California Sea lion in the Gulf of California, Mexico. In: A. Trites, S. Atkinson, D. DeMaster, L. Fritz, T. Gelatt, L. Re and K. Wynne (eds), Sea Lions of the World, pp. 369-384. University of Alaska Fairbanks.

Vedros, N.A., Smith, A.W., Schonewald, J., Migaki, G. and Hubbard, R.C. 1971. Leptospirosis epizootic among California sea lions. Science 172: 1250-1251.

Villegas-Amtmann, S., Simmons, S.E., Kuhn, C.E., Huckstadt, L.A. and Costa, D.P. 2011. Latitudinal range influences the seasonal variation in the foraging behavior of marine top predators. PLoS One 6(8):e23166.

Ward, J.E., Chirakkal, H., González-Suárez, M., Aurioles-Gamboa, D., Holmes, E.E. and Gerber, L. 2010. Inferring spatial structure from time-series data: using multivariate state-space models to detect metapopulation structure of California sea lions in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 47-56.

Weise, M. J. and Costa, D. P. 2007. Total body oxygen stores and physiological diving capacity of California sea lions as function of sex and age. Journal of Experimental Biology 210: 278-289.

Weise, M.J. and Harvey, J.T. 2005. Impact of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) on salmon fisheries in Monterey Bay, California. Fishery Bulletin 103: 685-696.

Weise, M.J. and Harvey, J.T. 2008. Temporal variability in ocean climate and California sea lion diet and biomass consumption: implications for fisheries resources and management. Marine Ecology Progress Series 373: 157-172.

Weise, M.J., Costa, D.P. and Kudela, R. 2006. Movement and diving behavior of male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) during anomalous oceanographic conditions of 2005 compared to those of 2004. Geophysical Research Letters 33 L22S10.

Weise M.J., Harvey, J.T. and Costa, D.P. 2010. The role of body size in individual-based foraging strategies of a top marine predator. Ecology 91(4): 1004-1015.

Wolf, J.B.W., Tautz, D. and Trillmich, F. 2007. Galapagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management. Frontiers in Zoology 4: doi:10.1186/1742-9994-4-20.

Zavala, G.A. and Mellink, E. 1997. Entanglement of California sea lions, Zalophus californianus californianus, in fishing gear in the central-northern part of the Gulf of California. Fishery Bulletin 95: 180-184.

Citation: Aurioles-Gamboa, D. & Hernández-Camacho, J. 2015. Zalophus californianus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T41666A45230310. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided