Galictis vittata 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Mustelidae

Scientific Name: Galictis vittata (Schreber, 1776)
Common Name(s):
English Greater Grison
Spanish Grisón, Hurón, Perro de Agua
Viverra vittata Schreber, 1776

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-03-01
Assessor(s): Cuarón, A.D., Reid, F., González-Maya, J.F. & Helgen, K.
Reviewer(s): Duckworth, J.W.
This species is listed as Least Concern because it has a wide distribution and tolerates certain degree of human disturbance. Nevertheless is one of the most common confiscated animals in countries such as Colombia, and confirmed records are scarce throughout its distribution.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Galictis vittata occurs at lower elevations from eastern Mexico south throughout Central America into South America as far south as Bolivia, northern Argentina, and Santa Catarina, Brazil. Its geographic range was estimated as 13,083,600 km² (Arita et al. 1990).
Countries occurrence:
Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Galictis vittata has a low density throughout its range (Arita et al. 1990). Some subspecies are considered uncommon or rare (Timm et al. 1989). The densities estimated for the species were 1- 2.4 individuals/km² (Eisenberg et al. 1979).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species occurs in a wide range from tropical forests, from sea level to 1,200 meters (Nowak 2005), to grasslands and even cultivated areas, although not in great numbers (de la Rosa and Nocke 2000). The diet includes small mammals, birds and their eggs, lizards, amphibians and fruits (Nowak 2005). Confirmed records of the species are scarce across its distribution therefore not current accurate estimates of its distribution are available.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: For use and trade information, see under Threats.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is tolerant of some disturbance, but hunting has shown negative effects (Bisbal 1993). In some parts of its range the males are trapped for their body parts and they are also sold as pets (de la Rosa and Nocke 2000). It is one of the most confiscated species in Colombia, and is one of the less known carnivore species across its distribution.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: In Costa Rica, it is considered endangered (Timm et al. 1989) and is listed on CITES Appendix III (Fuller et al. 1987). In Belize it is protected by the Wildlife Protection Act, and in Nicaragua it is protected from hunting (Fuller et al. 1987).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.11. Dams (size unknown)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

Bibliography [top]

Arita, H. T., Robinson, J. G. and Redford, K. H. 1990. Rarity in neotropical forest mammals and its ecological correlates. Conservation Biology 4(2): 181.

Bisbal, F. J. 1993. Human impact on the carnivores of Venezuela. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 28: 145-156.

Ceballos, G. and Navarro, D. 1991. Diversity and conservation of Mexican mammals. In: M.A. Mares and D.J. Schmidly (eds), Latin American mammalogy history, biodiversity, and conservation, pp. 167-198. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, USA.

de la Rosa, C.L. and Nocke, C.C. 2000. A Guide to the Carnivores of Central America: Natural History, Ecology, and Conservation. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

Eisenberg, J. F., O’Connell, M. A. and August, P. V. 1979. Density, productivity, and distribution of mammals in two Venezuelan habitats. In: J. F. Eisenberg (ed.), Vertebrate Ecology in the Northern Neotropics, pp. 187-207. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Fuller, K. S., Swift, B., Jorgenson, A., Brautigam, A. and Gaski, A. L. 1987. Latin American wildlife trade laws. Second edition, with 1987 update. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Nowak, R.M. 2005. Walker’s Carnivores of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA and London, UK.

Timm, R.M., Wilson, D.E., Clauson, B.L., Laval, R.K. and Vaughan, C.S. 1989. Mammals of the La Selva-Braulio Carrillo complex, Costa Rica. North American Fauna 75: 1–162.

Citation: Cuarón, A.D., Reid, F., González-Maya, J.F. & Helgen, K. 2016. Galictis vittata. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T41640A45211961. . Downloaded on 25 February 2018.
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