Galeopterus variegatus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Dermoptera Cynocephalidae

Scientific Name: Galeopterus variegatus
Species Authority: (Audebert, 1799)
Common Name(s):
English Sunda Flying Lemur, Malayan Flying Lemur
Cynocephalus variegatus (Audebert, 1799)
Taxonomic Notes: Generally the generic name Cynocephalus is used, though Groves (2005) use the genus name Galeopterus. There is sometimes confusion between this species and the Giant Flying Squirrel (Boeadi pers. comm.).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Boeadi & Steinmetz, R.
Reviewer(s): Chiozza, F. & Stuart, S.N. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
This species is probably declining due to habitat loss, possible competition with Callosciurus notatus, and traditional hunting in Java and perhaps elsewhere. More information is needed on population declines, but at present it is believed that the rate of the decline is probably not fast enough to trigger listing in any category other than Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species occurs in Indochina (including Viet Nam, Lao PDR and Cambodia), south through Thailand, eastern Myanmar and Malaysia (Peninsula, Sabah and Sarawak) to Indonesia (Sumatra, Kalimantan and western Java). It is known from several localities in northern and central Lao PDR (Ruggeri and Etterson 1998; Duckworth et al. 1999). The mapped population in the general vicinity of Kao Yai in central Thailand is unlikely present.
Countries occurrence:
Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Indonesia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Myanmar; Singapore; Thailand; Viet Nam
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There have been population declines on Java, where it occurs only on the western part of the island (Boeadi pers. comm.). Since 2001, there has been an ongoing study of this species by M. Baba, Kitakyusyu Museum in Japan (Boeadi pers. comm.), and there was as a study done in Singapore by the Raffles Museum in 2003. This species is probably not common in Sarawak (Giman pers. comm.).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is a forest-dependent species, but can be found in secondary habitats close to human populations (Boeadi pers. comm.). It is found in evergreen forest below 1,000 m asl (R. Steinmetz pers. comm.), mostly sleeping in coconut trees during the day, feeding on young fruits of surrounding trees (Boeadi pers. comm.). This species was reported from a mangrove forest in Bako National Park, Sarawak (Giman pers. comm.). It is found quite readily in plantations, perhaps even breeding there in Thailand and Viet Nam (R. Steinmetz pers. comm.).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by hunting by local people on western Java for consumption, though there is not much meat, thus it is not hunted widely, only traditionally (Boeadi pers. comm.), with increased hunting pressure every four years, by the Baduy Tribe (Boeadi pers. comm.). Deforestation is a threat to this species, as it is dependent on lowland forest. In the northern part of the range, including Thailand and Viet Nam, habitat loss is the main threat to this species, not hunting (R. Steinmetz pers. comm.). Populations in plantations might be threatened by competition with the Plantain Squirrel Callosciurus notatus.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is protected by national legislation, and is found in many protected areas, including in Peninsular Malaysia (Han pers. comm.), and in a few protected areas on Java, such Halimun National Park (U. Sinaga pers. comm.) and Masigit-Kareumbi Hunting Park (Farida pers. comm.).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.7. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level
suitability: Suitable  major importance:No
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.3. Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability: Unknown  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.2. Problematic native species
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Duckworth, J.W., Salter, R.E. and Khounbline, K. 1999. Wildlife in Lao PDR: 1999 Status Report. IUCN, Vientiane, Laos.

Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Ruggeri, N. and Etterson, M. 1998. The first records of colugo (Cynocephalus variegatus) from the Lao P.D.R. Mammalia 62: 450-451.

Citation: Boeadi & Steinmetz, R. 2008. Galeopterus variegatus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T41502A10479343. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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