Philantomba monticola 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Philantomba monticola
Species Authority: (Thunberg, 1789)
Common Name(s):
English Blue Duiker
French Céphalophe bleu
Spanish Duiquero Azul
Synonym(s):
Cephalophus monticola (Thunberg, 1789)
Taxonomic Notes: Philantomba was formerly regarded as a synonym or subgenus of Cephalophus but is now treated separately by most authors. Thirteen species have been named (Hart and Kingdon 2013). One of these, P. m. monticola, has an isolated distribution from northern KwaZulu-Natal to Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-01-07
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M. & Mallon, D.
Justification:
This is a widespread and abundant species with total population numbers estimated at more than seven million. Its ability to withstand hunting pressure and habitat degradation enable it to adapt to increasing human colonization of its forest habitats, although even this abundant, highly resilient species is suffering some decline in its distribution as human populations continue to grow and expand and rates of harvest are known to be increasing. Bush meat and other surveys indicate that population declines of this species may be close to or have already reached the thresholds for Near Threatened under criterion A, however until this is confirmed, the species remains listed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Widely distributed in central, eastern and southern Africa, from the Cross River in Nigeria to south-west South Sudan and southwards to central Angola, and Zambia, Malawi, eastern Zimbabwe, and parts of central Mozambique. In South Africa, this species is mainly confined to the evergreen forest and thicket along the coast from northern KwaZulu-Natal to the eastern Western Cape province, there are no confirmed records from Swaziland and none from southern Mozambique, suggesting a break in distribution between their South African range and eastern Zimbabwe and central Mozambique. Also present on the islands of Pemba, Zanzibar and Mafia (East 1999, Wilson 2001, Hart and Kingdon 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Angola (Angola); Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Equatorial Guinea; Gabon; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Nigeria; South Africa; South Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):3000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:East (1999) produced a total population estimate of more than 7,000,000 animals, likely a conservative figure. Protected areas comprise only a small part of its total range, but its core populations are generally stable apart from areas where subsistence and commercial meat-hunting pressures are exceptionally high (East 1999). Most population survey report densities from 5 to 35/km2 across the species' range (Hart and Kingdon 2013, and references therein).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The Blue Duiker thrives in a wide range of forested and wooded habitats, including primary and secondary forests, gallery forests, dry forest patches, coastal scrub farmland and regenerating forest from sea level up to 3,000 m asl (Hart and Kingdon 2013). They can persist in small patches of modified or degraded forest and thicket, even on the edge of urban centres.
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):4.5

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is heavily hunted for bushmeat in many parts of its range.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is subject to extensive hunting for bushmeat throughout its range states, and is arguably the most important wild ungulate economically and ecologically in Africa (Wilson 2001). However, it withstands hunting pressure better than most of the larger duikers. Furthermore, unlike many of the other forest duikers, Blue Duikers tolerate and even thrive in a range of human-modified habitats, even in the vicinity of settlement, and often persist well in small habitat patches (Hart and Kingdon 2013). Nonetheless, some local populations may be subject to declines or extirpation in the face of one or both of these threats (e.g. see Lawes et al. 2000).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The Blue Duiker occurs in large, generally stable numbers in many protected areas within the core of its range, e.g. Dja and Lobeke (Cameroon), Dzanga-Sangha and Dzanga-Ndoki (Central African Republic), Monte Alén (Equatorial Guinea), Lope and Gamba (Gabon), Odzala, Nouabale-Ndoki, Lake Tele-Likouala and Conkouati (Congo-Brazzaville) and the Okapi Faunal Reserve, Maiko, Kahuzi-Biega and Salonga NPs (DR Congo), not to mention several protected areas in South Africa.

The Blue Duiker should continue to survive in large numbers and provide an important source of protein to human populations in the Central African forest zone, as long as hunting pressure remain low to moderate over extensive parts of its range.

Listed on CITES Appendix II.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability:Marginal  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:Not Applicable
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

Bibliography [top]

East, R. (Compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Hart, J.A. and Kingdon, J. 2013. Philantomba monticola Blue Duiker. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. Volume VI: Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer and Bovids, pp. 228-234. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Lawes, M.J., Meakin, P.E. and Piper, S.E. 2000. Patch occupancy and potential metapopulation dynamics of three forest mammals in fragmented Afromontane forest in South Africa. Conservation Biology 14: 1088-1098.

Wilson, V.J. 2001. Duikers of Africa: Masters of the African Forest Floor. Directory Publishers, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.


Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Philantomba monticola. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T4143A50183103. . Downloaded on 27 September 2016.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided