Equus quagga


Bibliography [top]

Bennett, D. K. 1980. Stripes do not a zebra make. A cladistic analysis of Equus. Systematic Zoology 29: 272-287.

Duncan, P. 1992. Zebras, Asses and Horses: an Action Plan for the Conservation of Wild Equids. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

East, R. 1997. Current status of Burchell's Zebra in Africa, with additional information on Grevy’s Zebra and Cape Mountain Zebra. IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group.

George, M. and Ryder, O. A. 1986. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the genus Equus. Molecular Biology and Evolution 3: 535-546.

Grogan, P. J. P. 1973. Some Aspects of Nutrient Utilization by Burchell ’s zebra (Equus burchelli bohmi MATSCHIE) in the Serengeti-Mara region, East Africa. M.Sc. Thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station.

Groves, C.P. and Bell, C.H. 2004. New investigations on the taxonomy of the zebras genus Equus, subgenus Hippotigris. Mammalian Biology 69: 182-196.

Grubb, P. 2005. Order Perissodactyla. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 629-636. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Hack, A. M., East, R. and Rubenstein, D. I. 2002. Status and Action Plan for the Plains Zebra. In: P. D. Moehlman (ed.), Equids: Zebras, Asses and Horses. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 43-60. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Higuchi, A., Bowman, B., Freiberger, M., Fyder, O. A. and Wilson, A. C. 1984. DNA sequences from the quagga, an extinct member of the horse family. Nature 312: 282-284.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Klein, R. G. and Cruz-Uribe, K. 1999. Craniometry of the genus Equus and the taxonomic affinities of the extinct South African quagga. South African Journal of Science 95: 81-86.

Klingel, H. 1967. Soziale Organisation und Verhalten freilebender Steppenzebras. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 24: 580-624.

Klingel, H. In press. Equus quagga. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Leonard, J. A., Rohland, N., Glaberman, S., Fleischer, R. C., Caccone, A. and Hofreiter, M. 2005. A rapid loss of stripes: the evolutionary history of the extinct quagga. Biology Letters 1: 291-295.

Lorenzen, E. D., Arctander, P. and Siegismund, H. R. 2008. High variation and very low differentiation in wide ranging plains zebra (Equus quagga): insights from mtDNA and microsatellites. Molecular Ecology 17(12): 2812-2824.

Rau, R. E. 1978. Additions to the revised list of observed material of the extinct Cape Colony quagga and notes on the relationship and distribution of southern plains zebras. Annals of the South African Museum 77: 27-45.

Rubenstein, D. I. 1986. Life history and social organization in arid adapted ungulates. In: D. I. Rubenstein and R. W. Wrangham (eds), Ecological Aspects of social evolution, pp. 282-302. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Smuts, G. L. 1976. Population characteristics of Burchell's Zebra (Equus burchelli antiquorum, H. Smith, 1841) in the Kruger National Park. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 6: 99-112.

Citation: Hack, M.A & Lorenzen, E. 2008. Equus quagga. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 07 March 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided