Pongo pygmaeus ssp. wurmbii 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Hominidae

Scientific Name: Pongo pygmaeus ssp. wurmbii
Species Authority: (Tiedemann, 1808)
Parent Species:
Common Name(s):
English Southern Bornean Orangutan
Taxonomic Notes: The Asian primate classification recently published by Brandon-Jones et al. (2004) recognized only two subspecies for the Bornean Orangutan: P. p. pygmaeus and P. p. wurmbii. However, at the last orangutan PHVA (Singleton et al. 2004), an additional subspecies was recognized: Pongo pygmaeus morio.

Warren et al. (2001) used the control region of the mitochondrial DNA on six different Bornean populations and identified four distinct subpopulations with particular regional diversity and geographic clustering: (1) Southwest and Central Kalimantan; (2) Northwest Kalimantan and Sarawak; (3) Sabah; and (4) East Kalimantan. If we correlate those four subpopulations with the three subspecies described above, we have P. p. pygmaeus in (1), P. p. wurmbii in (2) and P. p. morio in (3) and (4).

P. p. pygmaeus: Northwest Bornean Orangutan:
- Sarawak (Malaysia)
- Northwest Kalimantan (Indonesia)

P. p. wurmbii: Central Bornean Orangutan:
- Southern west Kalimantan
- Central Kalimantan (Indonesia)

P. p. morio: Northeast Bornean Orangutan:
- East Kalimantan (Indonesia)
- Sabah (Malaysia)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Ancrenaz, M., Marshall, A., Goossens, B., van Schaik, C., Sugardjito, J., Gumal, M. & Wich, S.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Williamson, E.A. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
There has been an estimated decline of orangutan well over 50% during the last 60 years (generation length estimated at 20 years, Wich et al. in press). The decline of the species is predicted to continue at this rate, primarily because of forest loss due to conversion of forest to agriculture and fires. The majority of remnant wild populations are located outside of protected areas, in forests that are exploited for timber production or in the process of being converted to agriculture. Last but not least, poaching and the pet-trade remain major threats to across most of Borneo.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2007 Endangered (EN)
2000 Endangered (EN)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:See species-level assessment (Pongo pygmaeus).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Indonesia (Kalimantan)
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:See species-level assessment (Pongo pygmaeus).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:See species-level assessment (Pongo pygmaeus).
Systems:Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): See species-level assessment (Pongo pygmaeus).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: See species-level assessment (Pongo pygmaeus).

Classifications [top]

1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.3. Trend Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Groves, C. P. 1999. The taxonomy of orang-utans. Direktoraat Jenderal Perlindungen dan Koservasi Alam, World Wildlife Fund, Indonesia, and Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), Columbia University, Jakarta, Indonesia, New York, USA.


Citation: Ancrenaz, M., Marshall, A., Goossens, B., van Schaik, C., Sugardjito, J., Gumal, M. & Wich, S. 2008. Pongo pygmaeus ssp. wurmbii. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T39782A10267317. . Downloaded on 10 February 2016.
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