Map_thumbnail_large_font

Symphalangus syndactylus

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Bibliography [top]

Aldrich-Blake, F. and Chivers, D. 1973. On the genesis of a group of siamang. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 38: 631-636.

Anonymous. 1971. Clear felling threatens the siamang. Oryx 11(1): 6-8.

Bennett, E., Davison, G. and Kavanagh, M. 1983. Social change in a family of siamang (Hylobates syndactylus). Malayan Nature Journal 36: 187-196.

Chivers, D. 1971. Spatial relations within the siamang group. In: H. Kummer (ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress of Primatology, Zürich 1970, vol. 3: Behaviour, Basel and New York.

Chivers, D. 1971. The Malayan siamang. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 78-86.

Chivers, D. 1972. The siamang and the gibbon in the Malay Peninsula. In: D. Rumbaugh (ed.), Gibbon and siamang, vol. 1, Basel and New York.

Chivers, D. 1974. The siamang in Malaya: a field study of a primate in tropical rain forest. Contributions to Primatology 4: 1-335.

Chivers, D. 1975. Daily patterns of ranging and feeding in siamang.In: S. Kondo, M. Kawai and A. Ehara (eds), Contemporary primatology. 5th International Congress of Primatology, Nagoya 1974, Basel and New York.

Chivers, D. 1975. The behaviour of siamang in the Krau Game Reserve. Malayan Nature Journal 29: 7-22.

Chivers, D. 1977. The feeding behaviour of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus). In: T. H. Clutton-Brock (ed.), Primate ecology: Studies of feeding and ranging behaviour in lemurs, monkeys and apes, London, UK and New York, USA.

Chivers, D. 1979. The siamang and the gibbon in the Malay Peninsula. New York, USA.

Chivers, D. and Chivers, S. 1975. Events preceding and following the birth of a wild siamang. Primates 16: 227-230.

Chivers, D. and Raemaekers, J. 1973. Behaviour of siamang. Malayan Nature Journal 26: 177.

Chivers, D., Raemaekers, J. and Aldrich-Blake, F. 1975. Long-term observations of siamang behaviour. Folia Primatologica 23(1-2): 1-49.

Geissmann, T., Nijman, V. and Dallmann, R. 2006. The fate of diurnal primates in southern Sumatra. Gibbon Journal 2: 18-24.

Gittins, S. and Raemaekers, J. 1980. Siamang, lar and agile gibbons. In: D. Chivers (ed.), Malayan forest primates ? Ten years? study in tropical rain forest, pp. 63-105. Plenum Press, New York, USA.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Hunt Curtin, S. and Chivers, D. 1978. Leaf-eating primates of peninsular Malaysia: The siamang and the dusky leaf monkey. In: G. G. Montgomery (ed.), The ecology of arboreal folivores, Washington, DC, USA.

Kawabe, M. 1970. A preliminary study of the wild siamang gibbon, Hylobates syndactylus, at Fraser?s Hill, Malaysia. Primates 11(3): 285-291.

Khan, B. 1970. Distribution and population of siamang and gibbons in the state of Perak. Malayan Nature Journal 24: 3-8.

Lappan, S. 2005. Biparental care and male reproductive strategies in siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) in southern Sumatra. Ph.D. Thesis, New York University.

Lappan, S. 2007. Patterns of dispersal in Sumatran siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus): Preliminary mtDNA evidence suggests more frequent male than female dispersal to adjacent groups. American Journal of Primatology 69: 692?698.

MacKinnon, J. and MacKinnon, K. 1980. Niche differentiation in a primate community. In: D. Chivers (ed.), Malayan forest primates: Ten years? study in tropical rain forest, pp. 167-190. Plenum Press, New York, USA.

Norikoshi, K. 1986. Socio-ecological study of siamangs in Maninjau, West Sumatra. Kyoto University overseas research report of studies on Asian non-human primates, vol. 5, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Nurcahyo, A. 1998. Laporan penelitian studi perilaku harian siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) di Taman Nasional Bukit Barisan Selatan, Lampung. Jurusan Konservasi Sumberdaya Hutan. Universitas Gadjah Mada, Fakultas Kehutanan.

O'Brien, T. G. and Kinnaird, M. F. 2003. Caffeine and conservation. Science 300: 587.

O? Brien, T. G., Kinnaird, M. F., Nurcahyo, A., Iqbal, A. and Rusmanto, M. 2004. Abundance and distribution of sympatric gibbons in a threatened Sumatran rain forest. International Journal of Primatology 25(2): 267-284.

O? Brien, T., Kinnaird, M., Nurcahyo, A., Prasetyaningrum, M. and Iqbal, M. 2003. Fire, demography and the persistence of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus: Hylobatidae) in a Sumatran rainforest. Animal Conservation 6: 115 - 121.

Palombit, R. 1992. Pair bonds and monogamy in wild siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) and white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) in northern Sumatra. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California.

Palombit, R. 1994. Extra-pair copulations in a monogamous ape. Animal Behaviour 47: 721 - 723.

Palombit, R. 1995. Longitudinal patterns of reproduction in wild female siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) and white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar). International Journal of Primatology 16: 739-760.

Palombit, R. 1996. Pair bonds in monogamous apes: A comparison of the siamang Hylobates syndactylus and the white-handed gibbons. Hylobates lar Behaviour 133: 321-356.

Palombit, R. 1997. Inter- and intraspecific variation in the diets of sympatric siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) and lar gibbons (Hylobates lar). Folia Primatologica 68: 321-337.

Raemaekers, J. 1977. Gibbons and trees: Comparative ecology of the siamang and lar gibbon. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge.

Raemaekers, J. 1978. Changes through the day in the food choice of wild gibbons. Folia Primatologica 30: 194-205.

Raemaekers, J. 1978. Competition for food between lesser apes. In: D. Chivers and J. Herbert (eds), Recent advances in primatology, vol. 1: Behaviour, London, UK and New York, USA.

Raemaekers, J. 1978. The sharing of food sources between two gibbon species in the wild. Malayan Nature Journal 31: 181-188.

Raemaekers, J. 1979. Ecology of sympatric gibbons. Folia Primatologica 31: 227-245.

Raemaekers, J. 1980. Causes of variation between months in the distance travelled by gibbons. Folia Primatologica 34: 46-60.

Raemaekers, J. 1984. Large versus small gibbons: Relative roles of bioenergetics and competition in their ecological segregation in sympatry. In: H. Preuschoft, D. Chivers, W. Brockelman and N. Creel (eds), The lesser apes. Evolutionary and behavioural biology, Edinburgh.

Raemaekers, J. and Chivers, D. 1980. Socio-ecology of Malayan forest primates. In: D. Chivers (ed.), Malayan forest primates ? Ten years' study in tropical rain forest, New York, USA.

Treesucon, U. and Tantithadapitak, T. 1997. Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus): A new mammal recorded for Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 45: 123-124.

West, K. 1982. The ecology and behavior of the siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) in Sumatera. M.Sc. Thesis, University of California.


Citation: Nijman, V. & Geissman, T. 2008. Symphalangus syndactylus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 August 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided