Bass, A.J., D'Aubrey, J.D. and Kistnasamy, N. 1973. Sharks of the east coast of southern Africa. I. The genus Carcharhinus (Carcharhinidae). South African Association for Marine Biological Research. Oceanographic Research Institute. Oceanographic Research Institute. Investigational Reports.
Branstetter, S. 1981. Biological notes on the sharks of the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Contributions in Marine Science 24: 13-34.
Branstetter, S. and Burgess, G.H. 1997. Commercial Shark Fishery Observer Program. MARFIN Award NA57FF0286.
Branstetter, S. and Stiles, R. 1987. Age and growth of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Environmental Biology of Fishes 20: 169–181.
Casey, J.G. and Hoey, J.J. 1985. Estimated catches of large sharks by US recreational fishermen in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Shark catches from selected fisheries off the US East Coast. NOAA Technical Report NMFS SSRF.
Castro, J.I. 1983. The Sharks of North American Waters. Texas A. and M. University Press, College Station, USA.
Clark, E. and von Schmidt, K. 1965. Sharks of the central Gulf coast of Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science 15: 13–83.
Cliff, G. and Dudley, S.F.J. 1992. Protection against shark attack in South Africa, 1952 to 1990. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43(1): 263–272.
Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species to date. Part II (Carcharhiniformes). FAO Fisheries Synopsis, FAO, Rome.
Compagno, L.J.V., Ebert, D.A. and Smale, M.J. 1989. Guide to the sharks and rays of southern Africa. Struik Publications, Cape Town, South Aftica.
Compagno, L.J.V. in prep. B. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the shark species known to date. Volume 3. Carcharhiniformes. FAO, Rome.
Fowler, S.L., Cavanagh, R.D., Camhi, M., Burgess, G.H., Cailliet, G.M., Fordham, S.V., Simpfendorfer, C.A. and Musick, J.A. (comps and eds). 2005. Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras: The Status of the Chondrichthyan Fishes. Status Survey. pp. x + 461. IUCN/SSC Shark Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Garrick, J.A.F. 1982. Sharks of the genus Carcharhinus. NOAA Technical Report NMFS.
Gribble, N.A., McPherson, G. and Lane, B. 1998. Shark control: a comparison of meshing with set drumlines. In: N.A. Gribble, G. McPherson and B. Lane (eds), Sharks and Man: Shark Management and Conservation. Proceedings of an International Shark Workshop, Second World Fisheries Congress, Brisbane, Australia, 2 August 1996, pp. 98–124. Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane, Australia.
IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 3 November 2009).
IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. Specialist Group website. Available at: http://www.iucnssg.org/.
Last, P.R. and Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia, 2nd edition. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.
Pattillo, M., Czapla, T.E., Nelson, D.M. and Monaco, M.E. 1997. Distribution and abundance of fisheries and invertebrates in Gulf of Mexico Estuaries, Volume II: Species life history summaries. NOAA/NOSStrategic Environmental Assessments Division. ELMR Report 11.
Smith, S.E., Au, D.W. and Show, C. 1998. Intrinsic rebound potentials of 26 species of Pacific sharks. Marine and Freshwater Research 49(7): 663–678.
Snelson, F.F., Mulligan, T.J. and Williams, S.E. 1984. Food habits, occurrence and population structure of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, in Florida coastal lagoons. Bulletin of Marine Science 34: 71–80.
Snelson Jr., F.F. and Williams, S.E. 1981. Notes on the occurrence, distribution, and biology of elasmobranch fishes in the Indian River Lagoon system, Florida. Estuaries 4: 110–120.
Springer, S. 1963. Field observations on large sharks of the Florida-Caribbean region.In: P.W. Gilbert (ed.), pp. 95–113. Sharks and survival, DC Heath, Boston, USA.
Thorson, T.B. 1971. Movements of bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas, between the Caribbean Sea and Lake Nicaragua demonstrated by tagging. Copeia 1971: 336–338.
Thorson, T.B. 1972. Status of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, in the Amazon River. Copeia 1972: 601–605.
Thorson, T.B. 1982. The impact of commercial exploitation on sawfish and shark populations in Lake Nicaragua. Fisheries 7(2): 2–10.
Thorson, T.B. and Lacy, E. 1982. Age, growth rate and longevity of Carcharhinus leucas estimated from tagging and vertebral rings. Copeia 1982: 110–116.
|Citation:||Simpfendorfer, C. & Burgess, G.H. 2009. Carcharhinus leucas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 June 2015.|