Arno, S.F. and Hoff, R.J. 1990. Pinus albicaulis Englem. In: R.M. Burns and B.H. Honkala (eds), Silvics of North America, Agriculture Handbook 654, pp. 268-279. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC.
Arno, S.F. and Weaver, T. 1990. Whitebark pine community types and their patterns on the landscape. In: W.C. Schmidt, and K.J. McDonald (eds), Whitebark pine ecosystems—Ecology and management of a high mountain resource, pp. 97-105. March 29-31, 1989, Bozeman, MT.
Aubry, C., Goheen, D., Shoal, R., Ohlson, T., Lorenz, T., Bower, A., Mehmel, C. and Sniezko, R.A. 2008. Whitebark pine restoration strategy for the Pacific Northwest 2009-2013. Region 6 Report. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.
COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). 2010. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Whitebark Pine Pinus albicaulis in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.
Felicetti, L.A., Schwartz, C.C., Rye, R.O., Haroldson, M.A., Gunther, K.A., Phillips, D.L. and Robbins, C.T. 2003. Use of sulfur and nitrogen stable isotopes to determine the importance of whitebark pine nuts to Yellowstone grizzly bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81(5): 763-770.
Forcella, F. 1977. Flora, chorology, biomass and productivy of the Pinus albicaulis - Vaccinium scoparium association. Montana State University.
Forcella, F. and Weaver, T. 1977. Biomass and productivity of the subalpine Pinus albicaulis- Vaccinium scoparium association in Montana, USA. Vegetation 35: 95-105.
Gernandt, D.S., Geada Lόpez, G.G., Ortiz Garcia, S. and Liston, A. 2005. Phylogeny and classification of Pinus. Taxon 54: 29-42.
Gibson, K.E. and Bennett, D.D. 1985. Carbaryl prevents attacks on lodgepole pine by the mountain pine beetle. Forestry 83(2): 109-112.
Hoff, R.J., Bingham, R.T. and McDonald, G.I. 1980. Relative blister rust resistance of white pines. European Journal of Forest Pathology 10: 307-316.
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Keane, R.E. and Arno, S.F. 1993. Rapid decline of Whitebark Pine in western Montana: evidence from 20-year re-measurements. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 8: 44-47.
Keane, R.E. and Parsons, R.A. 2010. A management guide to ecosystem restoration treatments: Whitebark pine forests of the Northern Rocky Mountains. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-232, USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO.
Kegley, S. and Gibson, K. 2004. Protecting whitebark pine trees from mountain pine beetle attack using verbenone. Forest Health Protection Report 04-8. USDA Forest Service Northern Region, Missoula, Montana USA.
Kegley, S., Schwandt, J. and Gibson, K. 2001. Forest health assessment of Whitebark Pine on Pyramid Pass, Russell Mountain, and Burton Ridge in the Selkirk Mountains on the Idaho Panhandle National Forests. Report 01-8. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region, Forest Health Protection, Missoula, Montana.
Kendall, K.C. and Keane, R.E. 2001. Whitebark Pine decline: infection, mortality, and population trends. In: D.F. Tomback, S.F. Arno and R.E. Keane (eds), Whitebark Pine Communities: Ecology and Restoration, pp. 221-242. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Koteen, L. 1999. Climate change, whitebark pine, and grizzly bears in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem. In: S.H. Schneider and T.L. Root (eds), Wildlife responses to climate change, pp. 343-364. Island Press, Washington DC USA.
Lanner, R.M. 1982. Adaptations of whitebark pine for seed dispersal by Clark’s Nutcracker. Canadian Journal Forest Research 12: 391-402.
Lanner, R.M. and Gilbert, B.K. 1994. Nutritive value of whitebark pine seeds, and the question of their variable dormancy. In: W.C. Schmidt and F.K. Holtmeier (eds), Proceedings of the International workshop on subalpine stone pines and their environment: the state of our knowledge. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-GTR-309., pp. 206-211. Ogden, UT.
Logan, J.A. and Powell, J.A. 2001. Ghost forests, global warming, and the Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). American Entomologist 47: 160-173.
Lorenz, T.J., Aubry, C. and Shoal, R. 2008. A review of the literature on seed fate in whitebark pine and the life history traits of Clark’s nutcracker and pine squirrels. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-742.
Losensky, B.J. 1990. Historical uses of whitebark pine. In: W.C. Schmid and K.J. McDonald (compilers), Whitebark pine ecosystems—Ecology and management of a high mountain resource. March 29-31, 1989, Bozeman, MT. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, General Technical Report INT-270, pp. 191-201. Ogden, UT.
Mahalovich, M.F. 2000. Whitebark pine restoration strategy—some general considerations. Nutcracker Notes 11: 6-9.
Mahalovich M.F. and Dickerson, G.A. 2004. Whitebark pine genetic restoration program for the Intermountain West (United States). Proc. IUFRO Working Party 2.02.15 Breeding and genetic resources of five-needle pines: growth, adaptability and pest resistance, 23-27, July 2001. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO, USA, Proceedings RMRS-P-32.
Mahalovich, M.F. and Hipkins, V.D. 2011. Molecular genetic variation in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) in the Inland West. In: R.E. Keane (ed.), "High-Five" Symposium: The Future of High-Elevation Five-Needle White Pines in Western North America. 2010 June 28 - 30, pp. 118-132. Missoula, MT, USA.
Mahalovich, M.F., Burr, K.E. and Foushee, D.L. 2005. Whitebark pine germination, rust resistance and cold hardiness among seed sources in the Inland Northwest: Planting Strategies for Restoration. National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Association; 2005 July 18-20: 91-101. Park City, UT, USA.
McCaughey, W., Scott, G.L. and Izlar, K.L. 2009. Whitebark pine planting guidelines. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 24: 163-166.
McDonald, G.I. and Hoff, R.J. 2001. Blister rust: an introduced plague. In: D.F. Tomback, S.F. Arno and R.E. Keane (eds), Whitebark pine communities, ecology and restoration, pp. 193-220. Island Press, Washington DC.
Perkins, D.L. and Swetnam, T.W. 1996. A dendroecological assessment of whitebark pine in the Sawtooth-Salmon River region, Idaho. Canadian Journal Forest Research 26: 2123-2133.
Pfister, R.D., Kovalchik, B.L., Arno, S.F. and Presby, R.C. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. General Technical Report INT-34, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station,, Ogden, UT., USA.
Robbins, C.T., Schwartz, C.C., Gunther, K.A. and Servheen, C. 2006. Grizzly bear nutrition and ecology studies in Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Science 14(3): 19-26.
Shelly, S., Bollenbacher, B., Bush, R., DeNitto, G., Keane, R.E., Kearns, H., Lockman, B., Lundberg, R., Mahalovich, M.F., Manning, M., Nock, E., Schwandt, J., Scott, G.L. and Stewart, C. 2010. Executive Summary. Status and conservation of whitebark pine. USFWS response to petition to list whitebark pine. USDA Forest Service, Northern Region, Missoula, MT,.
Sniezko, R.A., Kegley, A., Danchok, R. and Long, S. 2007. Variation in resistance to white pine blister rust among 43 whitebark pine families from Oregon and Washington—early results and implications for conservation. Proc. of the Conference on Whitebark pine: a Pacific Coast perspective. Report R6-NR-FHP-2007-1: 82-97.
Steele, R., Cooper, S.V., Ondov, D.M., Roberts, D.W. and Pfister, R.D. 1983. Forest habitat types of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. General Technical Report INT-144. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
Syring, J., Farrell, K., Businský, R., Cronn, R. and Liston, A. 2007. Widespread genealogical nonmonophyly in species of Pinus Subgenus Strobus. Systematic Biology 56(2).
Syring, J., Willyard, A., Cronn, R. and Liston, A. 2005. Evolutionary relationships among Pinus (Pinaceae) subsections inferred from multiple low-copy nuclear loci. American Journal of Botany 92: 2086-2100.
Tomback, D.F. 1983. Nutcrackers and pines: coevolution or coadaptation? In: M.H. Nitecki (ed.), Coevolution, pp. 179-223. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
Tomback, D.F. and Kendall, K. 2001. Biodiversity losses: a downward spiral. In: D. Tomback, S.F. Arno and R.E. Keane (eds), Whitebark pine communities: Ecology and Restoration, pp. 243-262. Island Press, Washington DC USA.
Warwell, M.V., Rehfeldt, G.E. and Crookston, N.L. 2007. Modeling contemporary climate profiles of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and predicting responses to global warming. Proceedings of the conference whitebark pine: a Pacific Coast perspective. 2006 August 27-31; Ashland, OR U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region., Portland, OR: 139-142.
|Citation:||Mahalovich, M. & Stritch, L. 2013. Pinus albicaulis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 March 2015.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|