Schefflera procumbens 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Apiales Araliaceae

Scientific Name: Schefflera procumbens
Species Authority: (Hemsl.) F.Friedmann
Synonym(s):
Geopanax procumbens Hemsl.
Taxonomic Notes: The family of the Araliaceae is assigned to different orders depending on the classification system. The Thorne system, the Dahlgren system and the Young system assign the family to the Araliales. The Takhtajan system and the Cronquist system suggest the order of the Apiales.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2007-02-01
Assessor(s): Ismail, S., Huber, M.J. & Mougal, J.
Reviewer(s): Gibbs, D. & Lutz, M.L.
Justification:
Schefflera procumbens is restricted to three sites on Silhouette, Seychelles. The extent of occurrence (EOO) and the area of occupancy (AOO) are estimated to be less than 20 km² and 10 km² respectively. The invasive species Clidemia hirta and Lantana camara are present in the habitat. Although the situation seems to be stable, the quality of habitat could deplete. The population seems to be healthy and S. procumbens regenerates well from shoots. It went extinct on Mahé during the past 100 years. The reasons and rates of decline that have lead to the extinction on Mahé and to the small present population on Silhouette are not exactly known. The main reason for extinction on Mahé is certainly the destruction of the original forest during the period of the cinnamon oil industry that needed high amounts of fuel wood. As there are still several plausible threats occurring, one has to suspect an ongoing decline. Plausible threats are: competition pressure through invasive species, poor sexual reproduction, low genetic variability and limited dispersal. One single incident could wipe out the total population. It is therefore listed as Critically Endangered.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Vulnerable (VU)
1997 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Seychelles. It is only known from three sites on Silhouette (Friedmann 1994, J. Gerlach pers. comm. 2006). The entire area of Silhouette is 20 km² (National Statistics Bureau 2005). The EOO and AOO are estimated to be less than 20 km² and 10 km² respectively. In 1901, the species was collected on Mahé by Thomasset (Summerhayes 1931), but it has not been recorded on Mahé since that collection.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Seychelles (Seychelles (main island group))
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:5-10
Lower elevation limit (metres):400
Upper elevation limit (metres):700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:No precise data on the population size is available, but it is thought to be very small. Historically, this species was also known from Mahé (Cascade Estate) (Thomasset 1901 in Summerhayes 1931). However is has not been recorded there since the collection in 1901. The only remaining individuals are now confined to Silhouette. The population seems to be healthy and the plant regenerates well from shoots (J. Gerlach pers. comm. 2006).

The population on Silhouette is very small and it is restricted to three sites in close proximity of each other (Friedmann 1994, J. Gerlach pers. comm. 2006). Based on the eight times larger area of Mahé, it is suspected that the subpopulation on Mahé was a respectable fraction of the total population. A total population reduction of 50% over the past 100 years can be estimated.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs in moist forest at intermediate to high altitudes, 400-700 m. It is frequently found climbing on the trunks of trees but has also been found growing on and among rocks or rough cliffs (Carlström 1996). It regenerates well from shoots. Sexual reproduction cannot be observed.
Systems:Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Plausible threats to this species are competition pressure through invasive species, poor sexual reproduction, low genetic variability and limited dispersal. The main threat is its very restricted range. The reasons for extinction on Mahé are not exactly known; the main reason might have been the destruction of the original forests for the cinnamon oil industry. But there must have been other threats affecting the remaining individuals in inaccessible areas. Competition pressure through invasive species such as Clidemia hirta and Lantana camara is the major actual and future threat to this species (Carlström 1996). The effects of these invasive species on S. procumbens are uncertain. Although the situation seems to be stable, the quality of habitat could deplete.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Not present in protected areas. New data on population urgently needed.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Lantana camara)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Clidemia hirta)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

Bibliography [top]

Carlström, A. 1996. Endemic and Threatened Plant Species on the Granitic Seychelles. Report to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Division of Environment, Victoria, Seychelles.

Friedmann, F. 1994. Flore des Seychelles. Dicotylédones. OSTROM, Paris, France.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

National Statistics Bureau. 2005. Statistical Abstract 2004. Government of Seychelles, Mahé, Seychelles.

Summerhayes, V.S. 1931. An enumeration of the angiosperms of the Seychelles Archipelago. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 19: 261-299.


Citation: Ismail, S., Huber, M.J. & Mougal, J. 2011. Schefflera procumbens. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T33547A9791562. . Downloaded on 10 February 2016.
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