1997. Amphibians in Decline: Canadian Studies of a Global Problem. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Conservation No. 1.
Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.
Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.
Blaustein, A.R., Hoffman, P.D., Hokit, D.G., Kiesecker, J.M., Walls, S.C. and Hays, J.B. 1994. UV repair and resistance to solar UV-B in amphibian eggs: a link to population declines. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia: 1791-1795.
Campbell, J.B. and Degenhardt, W.G. 1971. Bufo boreas boreas in New Mexico. Herpetologica: 157-160.
Carey, C. 1993. Hypothesis concerning the causes of the disappearance of boreal toads from the mountains of Colorado. Conservation Biology: 355-362.
Corn, P.S. and Muths, E. 2002. Variable breeding phenology affects the exposure of amphibian embryos to ultraviolet radiation. Ecology: 2958-2963.
Corn, P.S. and Vertucci, F.A. 1992. Descriptive risk assessment of the effects of acidic deposition on Rocky Mountain amphibians. Journal of Herpetology: 361-369.
Corn, P.S., Stolzenburg, W. and Bury, R.B. 1989. Acid precipitation studies in Colorado and Wyoming: interim report of surveys of montane amphibians and water chemistry. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report: 56 pp.
Drost, C.A. and Fellers, G.M. 1996. Collapse of a regional frog fauna in the Yosemite area of the California Sierra Nevada, USA. Conservation Biology: 414-425.
Frost, D.R. 1985. Amphibian Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Allen Press and the Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence, Kansas.
Hailman, J.P. 1984. Bimodal nocturnal activity of the western toad (Bufo boreas) in relation to ambient temperature. Copeia: 283-290.
Hammerson, G.A. 1982. Amphibians and Reptiles in Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, Denver.
Hammerson, G.A. 1989. A field survey of amphibians in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, August 1989. Report to the Colorado Division of Wildlife and the Colorado Natural Areas Program.
Hammerson, G.A. 1992. Field surveys of amphibians in the mountains of Colorado, 1991. Report to the Colorado Division of Wildlife and Colorado Field Office of The Nature Conservancy.
Hammerson, G.A. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. Second edition. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Herreid, II, C.F. 1963. Range extension of Bufo boreas. Herpetologica: 218-219.
Hodge, R.P. 1976. Amphibians and Reptiles in Alaska, the Yukon and Northwest Territories. Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, Anchorage, Alaska.
IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.
Johnson, P.T.J., Lunde, K.B., Haight, R.W., Bowerman, J. and Blaustein, A.R. 2001. Ribeiroia ondatrae (Trematoda: Digenea) infection induces severe limb malformations in western toads (Bufo boreas). Canadian Journal of Zoology: 370-379.
Kiesecker, J.M. and Blaustein, A.R. 1997. Influences of egg laying behavior on pathogenic infection of amphibian eggs. Conservation Biology: 214-220.
Kiesecker, J.M., Blaustein, A.R. and Miller, C.L. 2001. Transfer of a pathogen from fish to amphibians. Conservation Biology: 1064-1070.
Livo, L.J. and Yeakley, D. 1997. Comparison of current with historical elevational range in the boreal toad, Bufo boreas. Herpetological Review: 143-144.
Muths, E. and Nanjappa, P. 2005. Western Toad. Bufo boreas Baird and Girard, 1852. In: Lannoo, M.J. (ed.), Status and Conservation of U.S. Amphibians. Volume 2: Species Accounts, pp. 64-83. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.
Muths, E., Corn, P.S., Pessier, A.P. and Green, D.E. 2003. Evidence for disease related amphibian decline in Colorado. Biological Conservation: 357-365.
NNHP. 1999. Nevada Natural Heritage Program Database. Carson City, Nevada.
Nussbaum, R.A., Brodie, Jr., E.D. and Storm, R.M. 1983. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Pacific Northwest. University Press of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA.
Oliver, G.A. 1997. Inventory of sensitive species and ecosystems in Utah. Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Olson, D.H. 1989. Predation on breeding western toads (Bufo boreas). Copeia: 391-397.
Olson, D.H. 1992. Ecological susceptibility of high elevation Oregon anuran amphibians to population fluctuations. Abstract, 6th Annual Meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology: p. 102.
Peterson, C.R., Koch, E.D. and Corn, P.S. 1992. Monitoring amphibian populations in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. Unpublished Report to Univ. Wyo. Natl. Park Serv. Res. Center.
Reichel, J.D. and Flath, D. 1995. Identification of Montana's amphibians and reptiles. Montana Outdoors: 15-34.
Ross, D.A., Esque, T.C., Fridell, R.A. and Hovingh, P. 1995. Historical distribution, current status, and a range extension of Bufo boreas in Utah. Herpetological Review: 187-189.
Samallow, P.B. 1980. Selective mortality and reproduction in a natural population of Bufo boreas. Evolution: 18-39.
Smits, A.W. 1984. Activity patterns and thermal biology of the toad Bufo boreas halophilus. Copeia: 689-696.
Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Welsh, H.H., Jr., Hodgson, G.R. and Lind, A.J. 2005. Ecogeography of the herpetofauna of a northern Californian watershed: linking species patterns to landscape processes. Ecography: 521-536.
Wiedmer, M. and Hodge, R.P. 1996. Geographic distribution: Bufo boreas. Herpetological Review: 148.
|Citation:||Geoffrey Hammerson, Georgina Santos-Barrera, Erin Muths 2004. Anaxyrus boreas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 06 March 2015.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|