Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Araucariaceae

Scientific Name: Araucaria muelleri
Species Authority: (Carrière) Brongn. & Gris
Eutacta muelleri Carrière
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
Taxonomic Notes: The identity of subpopulations on the Goro Plateau and in the Mamie area is uncertain - they may represent a new taxon in which case this assessment will need to be revised.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-11-04
Assessor(s): Thomas, P.
Reviewer(s): Farjon, A. & Gardner, M.
Contributor(s): Munzinger, J., Lowry, P. & Jaffré, T.

Its restricted distribution and edaphic specificity mean that its current extent of occurrence is considerably less 1,000 km2. The major subpopulations are severely fragmented and the area, extent and quality of habitat have declined.The principal threats are the expansion of mining activities (e.g., construction of a smelter on Goro Plateau) and an increased risk of fire, even in protected areas such as Montagne de Sources. Several locations/subpopulations contain less than twenty trees and these are likely to disappear in the near future. Regeneration and reproduction is very limited. Some restoration activities have been initiated on the Goro Plateua but these are at a very early stage (Cornu et al 2001).

Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Lower Risk/conservation dependent (LR/cd)
1998 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is known only from small parts of the southern massif and the Goro plateau, New Caledonia. Occurs from 150 to 1,000 m.
Countries occurrence:
New Caledonia
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:48
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:712
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:8
Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Lower elevation limit (metres):150
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The largest subpopulation in Montagne des Sources is estimated to consist of more than 2,000 trees. Most other subpopulations contain less than 200 trees. Although most subpopulations are within 50 km of each other, they are considered to be severely fragmented due to physical and ecological barriers that permit little opportunity for recolonization or genetic exchange.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:Yes
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
All individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Predominantly found in maquis shrubland on ultramafic soils, rarely emergent in rainforest. Growth and regeneration are very slow.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Mining developments on the Goro plateau threaten subpopulations in that area. In other parts of its range, including protected areas, it is susceptible to wildfires and an increase in their frequency.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The largest subpopulation in Montagne des Sources is within a protected area. Other smaller subpopulations on Mont Koghis and Pic du Pin are also within protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):50
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

Bibliography [top]

Cornu, A., Sarrailh, J.-M. and Marion, F. 2001. Espèces endémiques et restauration écologique en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Bois Et Forêts Des Tropique 268(2): 57-68.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Jaffré, T., Munzinger, J. and Lowry, P.P. 2010. Threats to the conifer species found on New Caledonia's ultramafic massifs and proposals for urgently needed measures to improve their protection. Biodiversity and Conservation 19: 1485-1502: DOI 10.1007/s10531-010-9780-6.

Manauté, J., Jaffré, T., Veillon, J.-M. and Kranitz, M. 2003. Revue des Araucariaceae de Nouvelle-Calédonie. IRD, Nouméa.

Mill, R.R. and Farjon, A. In prep. A Monograph of Araucaria. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh.

Citation: Thomas, P. 2010. Araucaria muelleri. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T30986A9588263. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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