Araucaria biramulata 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Araucariaceae

Scientific Name: Araucaria biramulata
Species Authority: J.Buchholz
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-11-02
Assessor(s): Thomas, P.
Reviewer(s): Farjon, A. & Gardner, M.
Contributor(s): Munzinger, J., Lowry, P. & Jaffré, T.
This species qualifies for Vulnerable on the basis of its limited extent of occurrence, the severe fragmentation and ongoing decline of its subpopulations due to fire and mining. The number of mature individual is estimated to be less than <10,000 with no subpopulation containing more than 1,000 mature individuals.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Lower Risk/conservation dependent (LR/cd)
1998 Rare (R)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Araucaria biramulata is primarily found in the southern part of New Caledonia although two localities are known from isolated ultramafic massifs in the north. Occurs from 190 to 1,150 m.
Countries occurrence:
New Caledonia
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:48
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:6340
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:12
Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Lower elevation limit (metres):190
Upper elevation limit (metres):1150
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The total population size is estimated to be less than 10,000 mature individuals; no single locality or subpopulation contains more than 1,000 trees.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:9999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Primarily found as a scattered emergent tree in dense humid evergreen forest at low to mid altitudes and in areas with 1,500 to 3,000 mm precipitation. It is restricted to ultrabasic soils.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Open cast mining and its associated activities are the principal threats in the northern part of its range (Mt Kaala/ Piton de Pandoup and Kopeto). Southern populations, including those in protected areas are mainly threatened by fires which prevent regeneration and increase fragmentation.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Well-protected subpopulations exist in Rivière Bleue Provincial Park.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):25
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Jaffre, T., Bouchet, P. and Veillon, J.-M. 1998. Threatened plants of New Caledonia: Is the system of protected areas adequate? Biodiversity and Conservation 7(1): 36.

Jaffré, T., Munzinger, J. and Lowry, P.P. 2010. Threats to the conifer species found on New Caledonia's ultramafic massifs and proposals for urgently needed measures to improve their protection. Biodiversity and Conservation 19: 1485-1502: DOI 10.1007/s10531-010-9780-6.

Laubenfels, D.J. de. 1972. Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances. Paris: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.

Manauté, J., Jaffré, T., Veillon, J.-M. and Kranitz, M. 2003. Revue des Araucariaceae de Nouvelle-Calédonie. IRD, Nouméa.

Mill, R.R. and Farjon, A. In prep. A Monograph of Araucaria. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh.

Citation: Thomas, P. 2010. Araucaria biramulata. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T30982A9586835. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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