Bos gaurus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Bibliography [top]

Abdul Kadir, A. H. 1998. Potential threats to Sumatran rhinoceros population in Belum Valley. Journal of Wildlife and Parks (Malaysia) 16: 156-157.

Ahrestani, F. and Karanth, K. U. 2014. Gaur Bos gaurus. In: Melletti, M. & Burton, J. (ed.), Ecology, Evolution and Behavior of Wild Cattle: Implications for Conservation, Cambridge University Press.

Andheria, A., Karanth, K.U. and Kumar, N.S. 2007. Diet and prey profiles of three sympatric large carnivores in Bandipur Tiger Reserve in India. Journal of Zoology (London) 273: 169–175.

Azlan, J. M. 2006. Mammal diversity and conservation in a secondary forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 1013-1025.

Baird, I. 1993. Wildlife trade between the southern Lao PDR provinces of Champassak, Sekong, and Attapeu and Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia Field Report No. 3. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Bali, A., Kumar, A. and Krishnaswamy, J. 2007. The mammalian communities in coffee plantations around a protected area in the Western Ghats, India. Biological Conservation 139: 93-102.

Byers, O., Hedges, S. and Seal, U. S. (eds). 1995. Asian wild cattle conservation assessment and management plan workshop. Working document. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN, USA.

Choudhury, A. 2002. Distribution and conservation of the Gaur Bos gaurus in the Indian Subcontinent. Mammal Review 32: 199-226.

Conry, P. J. 1989. Gaur (Bos gaurus) and development in Malaysia. Biological Conservation 49: 47-65.

Corbet, G.B. and Hill, J.E. 1992. Mammals of the Indo-Malayan Region: a Systematic Review. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Crandall, L.S. 1964. The Management of Wild Animals in Captivity. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.

Daltry, J. C. and Momberg, F. 2000. Cardamom Mountains Biodiversity Survey 2000. Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge, UK.

Dasgupta, S., and Sankar, K. 2008. Density, group size and sex ratios of gaur (Bos gaurus H. Smith) in a tropical semi-evergreen forest of north-east India. Indian Forester 134(10): 1281-1288.

Department of Wildlife and National Parks. 2002. Krau Wildlife Reserve Management Plan. Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Dersu Associates. 2007. Baseline wildlife survey of the Nakai plateau, 2006–2007. Unpublished report by Dersu Associates to the Nam Theun 2 Power Company, Vientiane.

Duckworth, J.W. 1996. Bird and mammal records from the Sangthong District, Vientiane Municipality, Laos in 1996. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 44: 217-242.

Duckworth, J.W. 1998. A survey of large mammals in the central Annamite mountains of Laos. Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 63: 239-250.

Duckworth, J.W. and Hedges, S. 1998. A Review of the Status of Tiger, Asian Elephant, Gaur, and Banteng in Viet Nam, Lao, Cambodia, and Yunnan (China), with Recommendations for Future Conservation Action. WWF Indochina Programme, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Duckworth, J.W., Salter, R.E. and Khounboline, K. 1999. Wildlife in Lao PDR: 1999 Status Report. IUCN, Vientiane, Laos.

Dunbar Brander, A. A. 1923. Wild Animals in Central India. London, UK.

Evans, G. H. 1912. Big-game Shooting in Upper Burma. Longmans, Green and Co., London, UK.

Evans, T.D., Duckworth, J.W. and Timmins, R.J. 2000. Field observations of larger mammals in Laos, 1994-1995. Mammalia 64(1): 55-100.

Gentry, A., Clutton-Brock, J. and Groves, C. P. 2004. The naming of wild animal species and their domestic derivatives. Journal of Archaeological Science 31: 645-651.

Grieser Johns, A. (ed.). 2000. Pu Mat: a biodiversity survey of a Vietnamese protected area. Social Forestry and Nature Conservation in Nghe An Province, SFNC Project, Vinh, Nghe An Province, Vietnam.

Groves, C. 2003. Taxonomy of ungulates of the Indian Subcontinent. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 100(2-3): 341-361.

Groves, C. and Grubb, P. 2011. Ungulate Taxonomy. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D.E. Wilson & D.M. Reeder (ed.), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

Grzimek, B. 1990. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.

Hansel, T. 2004. Observations on Subsistence Hunting Along the Phu Yai Mountain Range, Xanakham District, Vientiane Province, Lao PDR. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 52(2): 195-200.

Hedges, S. In press. Asian Wild Cattle and Buffaloes: Status Report and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Heng Kimchhay, Ouk Kimsan, Kry Masphal, Sin Polin, Uch Seiha and Weiler, H. 1998. The distribution of tiger, leopard, elephant and wild cattle (gaur, banteng, buffalo, Khting Vor and kouprey) in Cambodia. In: Interm Report: July 1998 (ed.), Wildlife Protection Office. Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Hiremath, A.J. and Sundaram, B. 2005. The fire-lantana cycle hypothesis in Indian forests. Conservation and Society 3: 26-42.

Hislop, J. A. 1961. The distribution of elephant, rhinoceros, seladang and tapir in Malaysia's National Park. Malayan Nature Journal 21st Aniversary Special Issue (Nature Conservation in Western Malaysia 1961): 95-99.

Hubback, T. R. 1937. The Malayan gaur or seladang. Journal of Mammalogy 18: 267-279.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2003. Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 60: 81-84.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: (Accessed: 04 September 2016).

Jathanna, D., Karanth, K.U. and Johnsingh, A.J.T. 2003. Estimation of large herbivore densities in the tropical forests of southern India using distance sampling. Journal of Zoology (London) 261: 285.

Johnson, A. and Johnston, J. 2007. Biodiversity monitoring and enforcement project in the Nam Theun 2 watershed. Final report. Wildlife Conservation Society, Vientiane, Laos.

Johnson, A., Vongkhamheng, C., Hedemark, M. and Saithongdam, T. 2006. Effects of human-carnivore conflict on tiger (Panthera tigris) and prey populations in Lao PDR. Animal Conservation 9: 421-430.

Karanth, K. K., Curran, L. M. and Reuning-Scherer, J. D. 2006. Village size and forest disturbance in Bhadra Wildlife sanctuary, Western Ghats, India. Biological Conservation 128: 147-157.

Karanth, K. K., Nichols, J. D., Karanth, K. U., Hines, J. E., Christensen, N. L. 2010. The shrinking ark: Patterns of large mammal extinctions in India. Proceedings of the Royal Society London-B 277: 1971-1979.

Karanth, K. U. 2013. Meta-population dynamics of tigers in the Malenad-Mysore landscape of Karnataka. Annual Report. Centre for Wildlife Studies, Bangalore, India .

Karanth, K. U. 2014. Meta-population dynamics of tigers in the Malenad-Mysore landscape of Karnataka. Annual Report. Centre for Wildlife Studies, Bangalore, India .

Karanth, K. U. 2015. Meta-population dynamics of tigers in the Malenad-Mysore landscape of Karnataka. Annual Report. Centre for Wildlife Studies, Bangalore, India.

Karanth, K. U. and Karanth, K. K. 2007. Free to move: conservation and voluntary resettlements in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. WCS Working Papers 29: 48–59.

Karanth, K.U. and Kumar, N.S. 2005. Distribution and dynamics of tiger and prey populations in Maharashtra, India. Final Technical Report. Centre for Wildlife Studies, Bangalore, India.

Karanth, K. U. and Kumar, N. S. 2015. Population estimation of tigers in Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala. Annual Report. Centre for Wildlife Studies/ WCS-India, Bangalore, India.

Karanth, K. U. and Nichols, J. D. 1996. Ecological status and conservation of tigers in India (February 1995 - January 1996). Wildlife Conservation Society, India Program, Mysore - India.

Karanth, K.U. and Sunquist, M.E. 1992. Population structure, density and biomass of large herbivores in the tropical forests of Nagarahole, India. Journal of Tropical Ecology 8: 21.

Karanth, K.U. and Sunquist, M.E. 1995. Prey selection by tiger, leopard and dhole in tropical forests. Journal of Animal Ecology 64: 439-450.

Kawanishi, K. and Sunquist, M.E. 2004. Conservation status of Tigers in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. Biological Conservation 120(3): 329–344.

Khan, M. 1973. Studies of the seladang (Bos gaurus) in the state of Perak. Malayan Nature Journal 26(3-4): 163-169.

Khan, M. A. R. 1985. Future conservation priorities for Bangladesh. Paper prepared for the 25th working session of IUCN's Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas, 4-8 February 1985. Corbett National Park, India.

Krishnan, M. 1972. An ecological survey of the larger mammals of peninsular India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69: 322-349.

Kumar, N. S. 2010. Assessment of distribution and abundance of ungulate prey using spatial models in Nagarahole and Bandipur Tiger Reserves of India. Manipal University, India..

Lad, P. M. and Gopal, R. 1992. The status of Indian guar (Bos gaurus) in Bandhavgarh National Park. Journal of Tropical Forestry 8(1): 98-95.

Laidlaw, R.K. 2000. Effects of habitat disturbance and protected areas on mammals of Peninsular Malyasia. Conservation Biology 14(6): 1639-1648.

Le Xuan Canh, Pham Trong Anh, Duckworth, J.W., Vu Ngoc Thanh and Lic Vuthy. 1997. A survey of large mammals in Dak Lak Province, Viet Nam. Unpublished report to IUCN and WWF. Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Lydekker, R. 1903. The Burmese gaur, or pyoung. Zoologist 7: 264-266.

Lydekker, R. 1907. The Game Animals of India, Burma, Malaya and Tibet. Rowland Ward, London, UK.

Lynam, A. J. 1999. Transboundary expedition on Thai–Malaysia border reveals Elephant and Sumatran Rhinoceros populations threatened by poaching. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 47: 23-25.

Lynam, A.J. 2003. A National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar. Myanmar Forest Department, Ministry of Forestry, Yangon, Myanmar.

Lynam, A.J., Laidlaw, R., Wan Shaharuddin Wan Noordin, Elagupillay, S. and Bennett, E.L. 2007. Assessing the conservation status of the Tiger Panthera tigris at priority sites in peninsular Malaysia. Oryx 41: 454-462.

Madhusudan, M.D. 2004. Recovery of wild large herbivores following livestock decline in a tropical Indian wildlife reserve. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 858–869.

Madhusudan, M.D. 2005. The global village: linkages between international coffee markets and grazing by livestock in a south Indian wildlife reserve. Conservation Biology 19: 411–420.

Madhusudan, M.D. and Karanth, K.U. 2000. Hunting for an answer: is local hunting compatible with large mammal conservation in India? In: J.G. Robinson and E.L. Bennett (eds), Hunting for sustainability in the tropics, pp. 339–355. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

Madhusudan, M.D. and Karanth, K.U. 2002. Local hunting and the conservation of large mammals in India. Ambio 31(1): 49-54.

Martin, E. B. and Phipps, M. 1996. A Review of the Wild Animal Trade in Cambodia. TRAFFIC Bulletin 16(2): 45–60.

Ma Yiqing and Wang Yingxiang. 1995. One [sic] the wild cattle in China. In: O. Byers, S. Hedges and U. S. Seal (eds), Asian Wild Cattle Conservation Assessment and Management Plan Workshop. Working document, pp. 132-134. IUCN/SSC, Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN, USA.

Moore, J. H., Sittimongkol, S., Compas-Arceiz, A., Sumpah, T., Eichhorn, M.P. 2016. Fruit gardens enhance mammal diversity and biomass in a Southeast Asian rainforest. Biological Conservation 194: 132-137.

Morris, R. 1937. Close seasons for big game - are they beneficial? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 39(3): 621-622.

Nash, S. V. 1993. Sold for a Song: The Trade in Southeast Asian Non-CITES Birds. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK.

National Research Council. 1983. Little-Known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA.

Pal, B. C. and Guin, D. P. 1986. Population structure of gaur herds at Garumara Wildlife Sanctuary, West Bengal, India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Calcutta 35(1-2): 89-95.

Pasha, M. K. S., Sankar, K. Qureshi, Q. and Areendran, G. 2004. Indian bison or gaur (Bos gaurus Lambert, 1804). ENVIS Bulletin (Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun) 7: 91–102.

Peacock, E.H. 1933. A Game-Book for Burma and Adjoining Territories. Witherby, London, UK.

Polet, G. and Ling, S. 2004. Protecting mammal diversity: opportunities and constraints for pragmatic conservation management in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. Oryx 38(2): 186.

Powell, A. N. W. 1964. The gaur or Indian bison. Journal of the Bengal Natural History Society 32(2): 73-80.

Prater, S. 1971. The Book of Indian Animals. Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay, India.

Prayurasiddhi, T. and Smith, J. L. K. 1993. Field Report: Gaur/Banteng Project April-August 1993. Conservation Biology Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.

Rabinowitz, A., Schaller, G. and Uga, U. 1995. A survey to assess the status of the Sumatran rhinoceros and large mammal species in Tamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary, Upper Chindwin District, northern Myanmar. Oryx 29(2): 123-128.

Ramachandran, K. K., Vijaykumaran Nair, P. and Easa, P. S. 1986. Ecology of larger mammals of Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 83(3): 505-524.

Ramesh, T., Sankar, K. Qureshi, Q. and Kalle, R. 2012. Group size and population structure of megaherbivores (gaur Bos gaurus and Asian elephant Elephas maximus) in a deciduous habitat of Western Ghats, India. . Mammal Study 37: 47–54.

Ranjitsinh, M. K. 1997. Beyond the Tiger: Portraits of Asian Wildlife. Birajbasi Printers, New Delhi, India.

Ratnam, L., Lim Boo, L. and Hussein, N. A. 1995. Mammals of the Sungai Singgor area in Temengor Forest Reserve, Hulu Perak, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 48: 409-423.

Rayar, K. 2010. Assessing potential tiger habitats in Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka using occupancy modelling approaches. . Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National Centre for Biological Sciences, India. .

Read, B., Morris, D., Loskutoff, N. and Ellis, S. 1994. Prepatory Document for the Bovid Conservation Assessment and Management Plan: Participants' First Draft, 20 April 1994. IUCN/SSC Captive Breeding Specialist Group.

Sahai, R. C. 1972. Distribution, composition and herd size of gaur (Bos gaurus) in Palamau, Bihar. Cheetal 15(1): 60-66.

Salter, R.E. 1983. Summary of currently available information on internationally threatened wildlife species in Burma. FAO, Rangoon, Burma.

Salter, R.E. 1993. Wildlife in the Lao PDR. A Status Report. IUCN, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Sankar, K., Pabla, H.S., Patil, C. K., Nigam, P., Qureshi, Q., Navaneethan, B., Manjreakar, M., Virkar, P. S. and Mondal. K. 2013. Home range, habitat use and food habits of re-introduced gaur (Bos gaurus gaurus) in Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve, Central India. Tropical Conservation Science 6(1): 50-69.

Schaller, G.B. 1967. The Deer and the Tiger. A Study of Wildlife in India. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.

Smith, A.T. and Xie, Y. 2008. A Guide to the Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Srifa La-Ong, Duangrat Pothieng and Bok Sakon. 1997. Survey on wildlife trading at the frontier of Thailand-Cambodia and People's Republic Democratic of Laos. WWF-Thailand, Bangkok, Thailand.

Srikosamatara, S. and Suteethorn, V. 1994. Wildlife conservation along the Thai-Lao Border. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 42: 3-21.

Srikosamatara, S. and Suteethorn, V. 1995. Populations of gaur and banteng and their management in Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 43(1): 55-83.

Srikosamatara, S., Siripholdej, B. and Suteethorn, V. 1992. Wildlife trade in Lao P. D. R. and between Lao P. D. R. and Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 40: 1–47.

Stebbing, E. 1911. Jungle By-ways in India. London, UK.

Steinmetz, R. 2004. Gaur (Bos gaurus) and banteng (B. javanicus) in the lowland forest mosaic of Xe Pian Protected Area, Lao P.D.R.: abundance, habitat use, and conservation. Mammalia 68: 141-157.

Steinmetz, R., Chutipong, W. and Seuaturien, N. 2010. Population recovery patterns of tropical ungulates after poaching in Thailand. Biological Conservation 143: 42–51.

Steinmetz, R., Chutipong, W., Seuaturien, N. and Cheungsa-ad, E. 2008. Community structure of large mammals in tropical montane and lowland forest in the Tenasserim–Dawna mountains, Thailand. Biotropica 40: 344–353.

Steinmetz, R., Seuaturien, N., Chutipong, W., Chamnankit, C. and Phoonjampa, R. 2007. The ecology and conservation of tigers, other large carnivores, and their prey in Kuiburi National Park, Thailand. WWF Thailand and Kuiburi National Park, Bangkok, Thailand.

SUFORD. 2010. Preliminary Biodiversity Assessment and Management Recommendations of SUFORD-AF Production Forest Areas. Vientiane: Sustainable Forestry for Rural Development Project -Additional Financing (SUFORD - AF). Unpublished report.

Timmins, R.J. 2014. Xe Sap Mammal and Bird Survey, May-June 2012. WWF Greater Mekong. Biodiversity surveys of Xe Sap National Protected Area. WWF Greater Mekong, Vientiane.

Timmins, R.J. and Ou Rattanak. 2001. The importance of Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary and adjacent areas for the conservation of tigers and other key species. WWF Indochina Programme, Hanoi, Vietnam and Phonm Penh, Cambodia.

Timmins, R.J. and Robichaud, W.G. 2005. Birds and mammals of conservation concern in the area of the proposed Nam Theun 1 Hydropower Project – assessment and recommendations. Report to Electrowatt-Ekono Ltd.

Tordoff, A.W., Timmins, R.J., Maxwell, A., Huy Keavuth, Lic Vuthy and Khou Eang Hourt (eds). 2005. Biological assessment of the Lower Mekong Dry Forests Ecoregion. pp. 192 pp.. WWF Greater Mekong Programme, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Wan Shahruddin, W. N. 1998. Potential threats of poaching of large mammals in Belum and Taman Negara. Journal of Wildlife and Parks (Malaysia) 16: 135-139.

Weigum, L. E. 1971. The last refuge. Malayan Nature Journal 24(3-4): 132-137.

Weigum, L. E. 1972. The Problems in the Preservation of the Seladang in the Malaysian National Park. M.Sc. Thesis, Michigan State University.

Wharton, C.H. 1957. An Ecological Study of the Kouprey (Novibos sauveli Urbain). Monographs of the Institute of Science and Technology, Monograph 5, Manila, Philippines.

Wharton, C. H. 1968. Man, Fire and Wild Cattle in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of the Annual Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 8: 107–167.

Wood, H. S. 1937. Observations on the gaur and its shikar. Journal of the Bengal (Darjeeling) Natural History Society 12(1): 7-17.

Xiang, Z. and Santiapillai, C. 1993. Asian Elephant Specialist Group report. Species 20: 54-55.

Yusof, E. 1982. Habitat requirements for the Malayan Gaur. The Journal of Wildlife and Parks 1: 7-14.

Citation: Duckworth, J.W., Sankar, K., Williams, A.C., Samba Kumar, N. & Timmins, R.J. 2016. Bos gaurus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T2891A46363646. . Downloaded on 19 September 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided