Map_thumbnail_large_font

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Translate page into:

Bibliography [top]

Aars, J., Marques, T.A., Buckland, S.T., Andersen, M., Belikov, S., Boltunov, A. and Wiig, Ø. 2009. Estimating the Barents Sea polar bear subpopulation size. . Marine Mammal Science 25: 35-52.

Amstrup, S.C. 2003. Polar bear, Ursus maritimus. In: G.A. Feldhamer, B.C. Thomson and J.A. Chapman (eds), Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation, pp. 587–610. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Amstrup, S. C., and C. L. Gardner. 1994. Polar bear maternity denning in the Beaufort Sea. . Journal of Wildlife Management 58(1): 1-10.

Amstrup, S.C. and Durner, G.M. 1995. Survival rates of radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young. Canadian Journal of Zoology 73: 1312-1322.

Amstrup, S.C., DeWeaver, E.T., Douglas, D.C., Marcot, B.G., Durner, G.M., Bitz, C.M. and Bailey, D.A. 2009. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence. Nature 468: 955-958.

Amstrup, S.C., Gardner, C., Meyers, K.C. and Oehme, F.W. 1989. Ethylene glycol (antifreeze) poisoning in a free-ranging polar bear. . Veterinary and Human Toxicology 31: 317-319.

Amstrup, S.C., I. Stirling, and J.W. Lentfer. 1986. Past and present status of polar bears in Alask. Wildlife Society Bulletin 14: 241-254.

Amstrup, S. C., Marcot, B.G. and Douglas, D.C. 2007. Forecasting the range-wide status of polar bears at selected times in the 21st century. U.S. Geological Survey Administrative Report. Reston, VA, USA.

Amstrup, S.C., Marcot, B.G. and Douglas, D.C. 2008. A Bayesian network modeling approach to forecasting the 21st century worldwide status of polar bears. In: DeWeaver, E.T., Bitz, C.M. and Tremblay, L.B. (eds), Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms and Implications. , pp. 213-268. Geophysical Monograph Series, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA.

Amstrup, S.C., McDonald, T.L. and Stirling, I. 2001. Polar bears in the Beaufort Sea: A 30-year mark-recapture case history. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 6: 221-234.

Andersen, M., Derocher, A.E., Wiig, Ø. and Aars, J. 2012. Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternity den distribution in Svalbard, Norway. Polar Biology 35: 499-508.

Arnold, S.F. 1990. Mathematical Statistics. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA.

Atkinson, S.N. and Ramsay, M.A. 1995. The effects of prolonged fasting of the body composition and reproductive success of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Functional Ecology 9: 559-567.

Atwood, T.C., Marcot, B.G., Douglas, D.C., Amstrup, S.C., Rode, K.D., Durner, G.M. and Bromaghin, J.F. 2015. Evaluating and ranking threats to the long-term persistence of polar bears. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014-1254.

Baker-Austin, C., J.A. Trinanes, N.G.H. Taylor, R. Hartnell, A. Siitonen, and J. Martinez-Urtaza. 2012. Emerging Vibrio risk at high latitudes in response to ocean warming. Nature Climate Change. 3: 73-77.

Belikov, S.E. and Randla, T.E. 1987. Fauna of birds and mammals of Severnaya Zemlya. In: Syroyechkovskiy, E.E. (ed.), Fauna and Ecology of Birds and Mammals in Middle Siberia, pp. 18-28. Nauka, Moscow, USSR.

Bernhoft, A., Skaare, J.U., Wiig, Ø., Derocher, A.E. and Larsen, H.J.S. 2000. Possible immunotoxic effects of organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 59: 561-574.

Best, R.C. 1984. Digestibility of ringed seals by the polar bear. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63: 1033-1036.

Blix, A.S. and Lentfer, J.W. 1979. Modes of thermal protection in polar bear cubs – at birth and on emergence from the den. American Journal of Physiology 236: R67-R74.

Born, E.W., Heilmann, A., Kielsen Holm, L. and Laidre, K.L. 2011. Polar Bears in Northwest Greenland: An Interview Survey about the Catch and the Climate. Museum Tusculanum Press, Copenhagen.

Bromaghin, J.F., McDonald, T.L., Stirling, I., Derocher, A.E., Richardson, E.S., Regehr, E.V., Douglas, D.C., Durner, G.M., Atwood, T. and Amstrup, S.C. 2015. Polar bear population dynamics in the Beaufort Sea during a period of sea ice decline. Ecological Applications 25: 634-651.

Bunnell, F.L. and Tait, D.E.N. 1981. Population dynamics of bears - implications. In: Fowler, C.W. and Smith, T.D. (eds), Dynamics of Large Mammal Populations. , pp. 75-98. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Burek, K.A., F.M.D. Gulland, and T.M. O’Hara. 2008. Effects of climate change on Arctic marine mammal health. Ecological Applications 18: S126-S134.

Bytingsvik, J., Lie, E., Aars, J., Derocher, A.E., Wiig, Ø., Jenssen, B.M. 2012. PCBs and OH-PCBs in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels in 1998 and 2008. Science of the Total Environment 417-418: 117-128.

Calvert, W. and Ramsay, M.A. 1988. Evaluation of age determination of polar bears by counts of cementum growth layer groups. Ursus 10: 449-453.

Castro de la Guardia, L., Derocher, A.E., Myers, P.G., Terwisscha van Scheltinga, A.D. and Lunn, N.J. 2013. Future sea ice conditions in Western Hudson Bay and consequences for polar bears in the 21st century. Global Change Biology 19: 2675-2687.

Cavalieri, D.J., Parkinson, C.L., Gloersen, P. and Zwally, H. 1996, updated yearly. Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data, 1979-2014. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center. Boulder, CO, USA.

Cherry, S.G., Derocher, A.E., Thiemann, G.W. and Lunn, N.J. 2013. Migration phenology and seasonal fidelity of an Arctic marine predator in relation to sea ice dynamics. Journal of Animal Ecology 82: 912-921.

Christensen-Dalsgaard, S.N., Aars, J., Andersen, M., Lockyer, C. and Yoccoz, N.G. 2010. Accuracy and precision in estimation of age of Norwegian Arctic polar bears (Ursus maritimus) using dental cementum layers from known-age individuals. Polar Biology 33: 589-597.

Connors ,B.M., Cooper A.B., Peterman R.M. and Dulvy N.K. 2014. The false classification of extinction risk in noisy environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 281: 20132935 281: 20132935.

Crompton, A.E., Obbard, M.E., Petersen, S.D. and Wilson, P.J. 2008. Population genetic structure in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Hudson Bay, Canada: Implications of future climate change. Biological Conservation 141: 2528-2539.

DeMaster, D. and Stirling, I. 1981. Ursus maritimus. Mammalian Species 145: 1-7.

Derocher, A.E. 2005. Population ecology of polar bears at Svalbard, Norway. Population Ecology 47: 267-275.

Derocher, A.E., Aars, J., Amstrup, S.C., Cutting, A., Lunn, N.J., Molnár, P.K., Obbard, M.E., Stirling, I., Thiemann, G.W., Vongraven, D., Wiig, Ø. and York, G. 2013. Rapid ecosystem change and polar bear conservation. Conservation Letters 6: 368-375.

Derocher, A.E., Andersen, M., Wiig, Ø., Aars, J., Hansen, E. and Biuw, M. 2011. Sea ice and polar bear den ecology at Hopen Island, Svalbard. Marine Ecology Progress Series 441: 273-279.

Derocher, A.E., Andriashek, D. and Arnould, J.P Y. 1993. Aspects of milk composition and lactation in polar bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71: 561-567.

Derocher, A.E. and Stirling, I. 1991. Oil contamination of polar bears. Polar Record 27: 56-57.

Derocher, A.E. and Stirling, I. 1998. Maternal investment and factors affecting offspring size in polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Journal of Zoology 245: 253-260.

Derocher, A. E., Lunn, N. J. and Stirling, I. 2004. Polar bears in a warming climate. Integrated Comparative Biology 44: 163–176.

Derocher, A.E., Lunn, N.J. and Stirling, I. 2004. Polar bears in a warming climate. Integrative and Comparative Biology 44: 163-176.

Derocher, A.E., Stirling, I. and Andriashek, D. 1992. Pregnancy rates and serum progesterone levels of polar bears in western Hudson Bay. . Canadian Journal of Zoology 70: 561-566.

Derocher, A.E., Wiig, Ø. and Andersen, M. 2002. Diet composition of polar bears in Svalbard and the western Barents Sea. Polar Biology 25: 448-452.

Derocher, A.E., Wolkers, H., Colborn, T., Schlabach, M., Larsen, T.S. and Wiig, Ø. 2003. Contaminants in Svalbard polar bear samples archived since 1967 and possible population level effects. Science of the Total Environment 301: 163-174.

Dietz, R., Bossi, R., Rigét, F.F., Sonne, C. and Born, E.W. 2008. Increasing perfluoroalkyl contaminants in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus): A new toxic threat to the Arctic bears. Environmental Science & Technology 42: 2701-2707.

Dietz, R., Gustavson, K., Sonne, C., Desforges, J.-P., Rigét, F.F., Pavlova, V., McKinney, M.A., and Letcher, R.J. 2015. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling of immune, reproductive and carcinogenic effects from contaminant exposure in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) across the Arctic. Environmental Research 140: 45-55.

Dietz, R., Rigét, F.F., Sonne, C., Born, E.W., Bechshøft, T., McKinney, M.A. and Letcher, R.J. 2013a. Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 1: Legacy organochlorine contaminants. Environment International 59: 485-493.

Dietz, R., Rigét, F.F., Sonne, C., Born, E.W., Bechshøft, T., McKinney, M.A., Drimmie, R.J., Muir, D.C.G., and Letcher, R.J. 2013b. Three decades (1983-2010) of contaminant trends in east Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Part 2: Brominated flame retardant . Environment International 59: 494-500.

Durner, G.M., Amstrup, S.C. and Ambrosius, K.J. 2006. Polar bear maternal den habitat in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Arctic 59: 31-36.

Durner, G. M., Amstrup, S.C. and Fischbach, A.S. 2003. Habitat characteristics of polar bear terrestrial maternal den sites in northern Alaska. Arctic 56: 55-62.

Durner, G.M., Douglas, D.C., Nielson, R.M., Amstrup, S.C., McDonald, T.L., Stirling, I., Mauritzen, M., Born, E.W.,Wiig, Ø., DeWeaver, E., Serreze, M.C., Belikov, S.E., Holland, M.M., Maslanik, J., Aars, J., Bailey, D.A. and Derocher, A.E. 2009. Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models. Ecological Monographs 79: 25-58.

Durner, G. M., Simac, K. and S. C. Amstrup. 2013. Mapping polar bear maternal denning habitat in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska witn an IFSAR digital terrain model. Arctic 66(2): 197-206.

Dyck, M.G. and Romberg, S. 2007. Observations of a wild polar bear (Ursus maritimus) successfully fishing Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and Fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis). . Polar Biology 30: 1625-1628.

Erdbrink, D.C. 1953. A review of fossil and recent bears of the Old World with remarks on their phylogeny based upon their dentition. University of Utrecht.

Erdbrink, D. P. 1953. A review of fossil and recent bears of the Old World with remarks on their phylogeny based upon their dentition. Drukkerij Jan de Lange, Deventer, Netherlands.

Fagre, A., P. Nol, T.C. Atwood, K. Patyk, K. Hueffer, and C. Duncan. 2015. A review of infectious agents in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their long-term ecological relevance. EcoHealth: doi: 10.1007/s10393-015-1023-6.

Fischbach, A.S., Amstrup, S.C. and Douglas, D.C. 2007. Landward and eastward shift of Alaskan polar bear denning associated with recent sea ice changes. . Polar Biology 30: 1395-1405.

Foote, L. and Wenzel, G.W. 2009. Polar bear conservation hunting in Canada: economics, culture and unintended consequences. In: Freeman, M.M.R. and Foote, L. (eds), Inuit, Polar Bears and Sustainable Use: Local, National and International Perspectives, pp. 13-24. Canadian Circumpolar Institute Press, Edmonton.

Gebbink, W.A., Bossi, R., Rigét, F.F., Rosing-Asvid, A., Sonne, C., and Dietz, R. Submitted. Occurrence of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Arctic Greenland marine mammals.

Gelman, A. and Hill, J. 2006. Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA.

Gelman, A. and Su, Y.-S. 2015. arm: Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models. R package version 1.8-5. Available at: http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=arm.

Gormezano, L.J. and Rockwell, R.F. 2013. Submitted Gormezano, L.J. and Rockwell, R.F. 2013. What to eat now? Shifts in polar bear diet during the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay. Ecology and Evolution 3: 3509-3523.

Gough, W.A., Cornwell, A. R. and Tsuji, L.J.S. 2004. Trends in seasonal sea ice duration in southwestern Hudson Bay. Arctic 57: 298-304.

Gustavson, L., Ciesielski, T.M., Bytingsvik, J., Styrishave, B., Hansen, M., Lie, E., Aars, J., and Jenssen, B.M. 2015. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Environmental Research 138: 91-201.

Hamilton, S.G., Castro de la Guardia, L., Derocher, A.E., Sahanatien, V., Tremblay, B. and Huard, D. 2014. Projected polar bear sea ice habitat in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. PLoS ONE. 9: e113746,doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113746.

Harington, C. R. 1966. A polar bear’s life. Report on Polar Bears. Lectures presented at the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Washington Area Associates., pp. 3-7. Arctic Institute of North America Research Paper 34.

Harvell, C.D., C.E. Mitchell, J.R. Ward, S. Altizer, A.P. Dobson, R.S. Ostfeld, et al. 2002. Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296: 2158-2162.

Harvell, C. D., Mitchell, C. E., Ward, J. R., Altizer, S., Dobson, A. P., Ostfeld, R. S., and Samuel, M D. 2002. Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marin biota. Science 296(5576): 2158-2162.

Henriksen, E.O., Wiig, Ø., Skaare, J.U., Gabrielsen, G.W. and Derocher, A.E. 2001. Monitoring PCBs in polar bears: lessons learned from Svalbard. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 3: 493-498.

Herreman, J. and Peacock, E. 2013. Polar bear use of a persitent food subsidy: insights from non-invasive genetic sampling in Alaska. Ursus 24: 148-163.

Hobson, K.A., Stirling, I. and Andriashek, D.S. 2009. Isotopic homogeneity of breath CO2 from fasting and berry-eating polar bears: implications for tracing reliance on terrestrial foods in a changing Arctic. . Canadian Journal of Zoology 87: 50-55.

Hueffer, K., T.M. O’Hara, and E.H. Follmann. 2011. Adaptation of mammalian host-pathogen interactions in a changing arctic environment. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 53:17. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 53: 17.

Hunter, C.M., Caswell, H., Runge, M.C., Regehr, E.V., Amstrup, S.C. and Stirling, I. 2010. Climate change threatens polar bear populations: a stochastic demographic analysis. Ecology 91: 2883-2897.

Hurst, R.J. and Øritsland, N.A. 1982. Polar bear thermoregulation: Effect of oil on the insulative properties of fur. Journal of Thermal Biology 7: 201-208.

IPCC. 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

IPCC. 2014. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Isaksen, K., Bakken, V. and Wiig, Ø. 1998. Potential effects on seabirds and marine mammals of petroleum activity in the northern Barents Sea. Norsk Polarinstitutt Meddelelser 154: 1-66.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2013. Documentation standards and consistency checks for IUCN Red List assessments and species accounts. Version 2. Adopted by the IUCN Red List Committee and IUCN SSC Steering Committee. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RL_Standards_Consistency.pdf.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2014. Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 11.

Jenssen, B.M., Villanger, G.D., Gabrielsen, K.M., Bytingsvik, J., Bechshøft, T., Ciesielski, T.M., Sonne, C. and Dietz, R. 2015. Anthropogenic flank attack on polar bears: Interacting consequences of climate warming and pollutant exposure. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 3.

Kirk, C., S.C. Amstrup, R. Swor, D. Holcomband and T.M. O’Hara. 2010. Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma exposure and association with hematological parameters for southern Beaufort Sea polar bears: potential response to infectious agents in a sentinel species. EcoHealth 7: 321-331.

Knott, K.K., Schenk, P., Beyerlein, S., Boyd, D., Ylitalo, G.M., O'Hara, T.M. 2011. Blood-based biomarkers of selenium and thyroid status indicate possible adverse biological effects of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears. Environmental Research 111: 1124-1136.

Kochnev, A.A. 2004. Polar bear in Chukotka: concerns and hopes (in Russian, English translation). Wildlife Conservation 3: 7-14.

Kolenosky, G.B., Abraham, K.F. and Greenwood, C.J. 1992. Polar bears of southern Hudson Bay. Polar Bear Project, 1984-88. Final Report. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Maple, ON, Canada.

Kolenosky, G.B. and Prevett, J.P. 1983. Productivity and maternity denning of polar bears in Ontario. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 5: 238-245.

Kurtén, B. 1964. The evolution of the polar bear, Ursus maritimus Phipps. Acta Zoologica Fennica 108: 1-30.

Kutz, S.J., S. Checkley, G.G. Verocai, M. Dumond, E.P. Hoberg, R. Peacock, J.P. Wu, K. Orsel, K. Seegers, A.L. Warren, and A. Abrams. 2013. Invasion, establishment, and range expansion of two parasitic nematodes in the Canadian Arctic. Global Change Biology 19: 3254-3262.

Laaksonen, S.,Pusenius, J., Kumpula, J., Venäläinen, A., Kortet, R., Oksanen, A. and Hoberg, E. 2010. Climate change promotes the emergence of serious disease outbreaks of filarioid nematodes. EcoHealth 7: 7-13.

Larsen, T. 1985. Polar bear denning and cub production in Svalbard, Norway. . Journal of Wildlife Management 49: 320-326.

Lentfer, J. W. and Hensel, R. J. 1980. Alaskan polar bear denning. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 4: 101-108.

Letcher, R.J., Bustnes, J.O., Dietz, R., Jenssen, B.M., Jørgensen, E.H., Sonne, C., Verreault, J., Vijayan, M.M. and Gabrielsen, G.W. 2010. Exposure and effects assessment of persistent organohalogen contaminants in arctic wildlife and fish. Science of the Total Environment 408: 2995-3043.

Lønø, O. 1970. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps) in the Svalbard area. Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter 149: 1-115.

Lunn, N.J. and Stirling, I. 1985. The significance of supplemental food to polar bears during the ice-free period of Hudson Bay. . Canadian Journal of Zoology 63: 2291-2297.

Lunn, N.J., Servanty, S., Regehr, E.V., Converse, S.J., Richardson, E. and Stirling, I. 2014. Demography and population status of polar bears in western Hudson Bay, Canada. Environment Canada Research Report. Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Lunn, N.J., Stirling, I., Andriashek, D. and Richardson, E. 2004. Selection of maternity dens by female polar bears in western Hudson Bay, Canada and the effects of human disturbance. Polar Biology 27: 350-356.

Macdonald, R.W., Harner, T.T. and Fyfe, J. 2005. Recent climate change in the Arctic and its impact on contaminant pathways and interpretation of temporal trend data. Science of the Total Environment 13: 1-27.

Manly, B.F.J. 1991. Randomization and Monte Carlo Methods in Biology. Chapman and Hall , New York, NY, USA.

Manning, T.H. 1971. Geographical variation in the polar bear, Ursus maritimus Phipps. Canadian Wildlife Service Report 13: 1-27.

Manning, T. H. 1971. Geographical variation in the polar bear Ursus maritimus Phipps. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Canada.

Matishov, G.G., Chelintsev, N.G., Goryaev, Yu.I., Makarevich, P.R. and Ishkulov, D.G. 2014. Assessment of the amount of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) on the basis of perennial vessel counts. Doklady Earth Sciences 458: 1312-1316.

Mauritzen, M., Derocher, A.E., Wiig, Ø., Belikov, S.E., Boltunov, A.N., Hansen, E. and Garner, G.W. 2002. Using satellite telemetry to define spatial population structure in polar bears in the Norwegian and western Russian Arctic. Journal of Applied Ecology 39: 79-90.

McDonald, T.L. and Amstrup, S.C. 2001. Estimation of population size using open capture-recapture models. . Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 6: 206-220.

McKinney, M.A., Letcher, R.J., Aars, J., Born, E.W., Branigan, M., Dietz, R., Evans, T.J., Gabrielsen, G.W., Peacock, E. and Sonne, C. 2011. Flame retardants and legacy contaminants in polar bears from Alaska, Canada, East Greenland and Svalbard, 2005-2008. Environment International 37: 265-274.

McKinney, M. A., Peacock, E. and Letcher, R.J. 2009. Sea ice-associated diet change increases the level of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in polar bears. Environmental Science & Technology 43: 4334-4339.

McKinney, M.M., Iverson, S.J., Fisk, A.T., Sonne, C., Rigét, F.F., Letcher, R.J., Arts, M.T., Born, E.W., Rosing-Asvid, A. and Dietz, R. 2013. Global change effects on the long-term feeding ecology and contaminant exposures of East Greenland polar bears. Global Change Biology 19: 2360-2372.

Messier, F. 2000. Effects of capturing, tagging and radio-collaring polar bears for research and management purposes in Nunavut and Northwest Territories. . Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, NU, Canada, 64 pp. .

Messier, F., Taylor, M.K. and Ramsay, M.A. 1994. Denning ecology of polar bears in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Journal of Mammalogy 75: 420-430.

Molnár, P.K., Derocher, A.E., Klanjscek, T. and Lewis, M.A. 2011. Predicting climate change impacts on polar bear litter size. Nature Communications 2(186).

Molnár, P.K., Derocher, A.E., Thiemann, G.W. and Lewis, M.A. 2010. Predicting survival, reproduction and abundance of polar bears under climate change. . Biological Conservation 143: 1612-1622.

Molnár, P.K., Derocher, A.E., Thiemann, G.W. and Lewis, M.A. 2014a. Corrigendum to “Predicting survival, reproduction and abundance of polar bears under climate change” [Biol. Conserv. 143 (2010) 1612-1622]. Biological Conservation 177: 230-231.

Molnár, P.K., Lewis, M.A. and Derocher, A.E. 2014b. Estimating allee dynamics before they can be observed: polar bears as a case study. PLoS ONE 9: e85410.

Muir, D.C.G., Backus, S., Derocher, A.E., Dietz, R., Evans, T.J. Gabrielsen, G.W., Nagy, J., Norstrom, R.J., Sonne, C., Stirling, I., Taylor, M.K. and Letcher, R.J. 2006. Brominated flame retardants in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, East Greenland, and Svalbard. Environmental Science & Technology 40: 449-455.

Obbard, M.E. McDonald, T.L., Howe, E.J., Regehr, E.V. and Richardson, E.S. 2007. Polar Bear Population Status in Southern Hudson Bay, Canada. U.S. Geological Survey Administrative Report. Reston, VA, USA.

Obbard, M.E., Middel, K.R., Stapleton, S., Thibault, I., Brodeur, V. and Jutras, C. 2015. Estimating abundance of the Southern Hudson Bay polar bear subpopulation with aerial surveys. Polar Biology In press.

Obbard, M.E., Thiemann, G.W., Peacock, E. and DeBruyn, T.D (eds). 2010. Polar Bears: Proceedings of the 15th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group, Copenhagen, Denmark, 29 June–3 July 2009. pp. 235. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

O’Neill, S.J., Osborn, T.J., Hulme, M., Lorenzoni, I. and Watkinson, A.R. 2008. Using expert knowledge to assess uncertainties in future polar bear populations under climate change. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 1649-1659.

Øritsland, N.A., Engelhardt, F.R., Juck, F.A., Hurst, R.J. and Watts, P.D. 1981. Effect of crude oil on polar bears. Environmental Studies 24,. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Ottawa, Canada.

Overland, J.E. and Wang, M. 2013. When will the summer Arctic be nearly sea ice free? . Geophysical Research Letters 40: 2097-2101.

Paetkau, D., Amstrup, S.C., Born, E.W., Calvert, W., Derocher, A.E., Garner, G.W., Messier, F., Stirling, I., Taylor, M.K., Wiig, Ø. and Strobeck, C. 1999. Genetic structure of the world's polar bear populations. Molecular Ecology 8: 1571-1584.

Parkinson, C.L. 2014. Spatially mapped reductions in the length of the Arctic sea ice season. Geophysical Research Letters 41: 4316-4322.

Parmesan, C. 2006. Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 37: 637-669.

Parmesan, C. 2006. Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. . Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37: 637-669.

Patyk, K., C. Duncan, P. Nol., C. Sonne, K. Laidre, M. Obbard, Ø. Wiig, J. Aars, E. Regehr, L. Gustafson, and T.C. Atwood. 2015. Establishing a definition of polar bear health to guide research and management activities. . Science for the Total Environment 514: 371-378.

PBSG. 1995. Summary of polar bear population status 1993. In: Wiig, Ø., Born, E.W. and Garner, G.W. (eds), Polar Bears: Proceedings of the 11th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group, Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-27 January 1993, pp. 19-24. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

PBSG. 1998. Status of the polar bear. In: Derocher, A.E., Garner, G.W., Lunn, N.J. and Wiig, Ø. (eds), Polar Bears: Proceedings of the 12th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group, Oslo, Norway, 3-7 February 1997, pp. 23-44. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

PBSG. 2002. Status of the polar bear. In: Lunn, N.J., Schliebe, S. and Born, E.W. (eds), Polar Bears: Proceedings of the 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group, Nuuk, Greenland, 23-28 June 2001, pp. 21-35. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

PBSG. 2010. 2009 status report on the world’s polar bear subpopulations. In: Obbard, M.E., Thiemann, G.W., Peacock, E. and DeBruyn, T.D. (eds), Polar Bears: Proceedings of the 15th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group, Copenhagen, Denmark, 29 June–3 July 2009, pp. 31-80. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

PBSG. 2015. Summary of polar bear population status per 2014. Available at: pbsg.npolar.no/en/status/status-table.html. (Accessed: 01 July 2015).

Peacock, E., Sonsthagen, S.A., Obbard, M.E., Boltunov, A., Regehr, E.V., Ovsyanikov, N., Aars, J., Atkinson, S.N., Sage, G.K., Hope, A.G., Zeyl, E., Bachmann, L., Ehrich, D., Scribner, K.T., Amstrup, S.C., Belikov, S., Born, E.W., Derocher, A.E., Stirling, I., Taylor, M.K., Wiig, Ø., Paetkau, D. and Talbot, S.L. 2015. Implications of the circumpolar genetic structure of polar bears for their conservation in a rapidly warming Arctic. PLoS ONE 10: e11202.

Peacock, E., Taylor, M.K., Laake, J. and Stirling, I. 2013. Population ecology of polar bears in Davis Strait, Canada and Greenland. Journal of Wildlife Management 77: 463-476.

Pedersen, A. 1945. Der Eisbär: Verbreitung und Lebensweise. E. Bruun, Copenhagen.

Phipps, C.J. 1774. A Voyage Towards the North Pole undertaken by His Majesty's Command, 1773. J. Nourse, London.

Polischuk, S.C., Norstrom, R.J. and Ramsay, M.A. 2002. Body burdens and tissue concentrations of organochlorines in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) vary during seasonal fasts. Environmental Pollution 118: 29-39.

Ramsay, M.A. and Hobson, K.A. 1991. Polar bears make little use of terrestrial food webs: evidence from stable-carbon isotope analysis. Oecologia 86: 598-600.

Ramsay, M.A. and Stirling, I. 1986. Long-term effects of drugging and handling free-ranging polar bears. Journal of Wildlife Management 50: 619-626.

R Core Team. 2015. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria Available at: http://www.R-project.org/.

Regehr, E.V., Hunter, C.M., Caswell, H., Amstrup, S.C. and Stirling, I. 2010. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice. Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 117-127.

Regehr, E.V., Lunn, N.J. Amstrup, S.C. and Stirling, I. 2007. Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 2673-2683.

Regehr, E.V., Wilson, R.R., Rode, K.D. and Runge, M.C. 2015. Resilience and risk – A demographic model to inform conservation planning for polar bears. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015-1029.

Rhodes, J.R., Chooi, F.N., deVilliers, D.L., Preece, H.J., McAlpine, C.A. and Possingham, H.P. 2011. Using intergrated population modelling to quantify the implications of multiple threatening processes for a rapidly declining population. Biological Conservation 144: 1081-1088.

Richardson, E.S., Stirling, I. and Kochtubajda, B. 2007. The effects of forest fires on polar bear maternity denning habitat in western Hudson Bay. Polar Biology 30: 369-378.

Richardson, E., Stirling, I. and Hik, D.S. 2005. Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternity denning habitat in western Hudson Bay: a bottom-up approach to resource selection functions. Canadian Journal of Zoology 83: 860-870.

Rigét, F., Bossi, R., Sonne, C., Vorkamp, K. and Dietz, R. 2013. Trends of perfluorochemicals in Greenland ringed seals and polar bears: indications of shifts to decreasing trends. Chemosphere 9: 1607-1614.

Robbins, C.T., Ben-David, M., Fortin, J.K. and Nelson, O.L. 2012a. Maternal condition determines birth date and growth of newborn bear cubs. Journal of Mammalogy 93(540-546).

Robbins, C.T., Lopez-Alfaro, C., Rode, K.D., Tøien, Ø. and Nelson, O.L. 2012b. Hibernation and seasonal fasting in bears: the energetic costs and consequences for polar bears. Journal of Mammalogy 93: 1493-1503.

Rode, K.D., Amstrup, S.C. and Regehr, E.V. 2010a. Reduced body size and cub recruitment in polar bears associated with sea ice de. Ecological Applications 20: 768-782.

Rode, K.D., Pagano, A.M., Bromaghin, J.F., Atwood, T.C., Durner, G.M., Simac, K.S. and Amstrup, S.C. 2014a. Effects of capturing and collaring on polar bears: findings from long-term research on the southern Beaufort Sea population. . Wildlife Research.

Rode, K.D., Peacock, E., Taylor, M., Stirling, I., Born, E.W., Laidre, K.L. and Wiig, Ø. 2012. A tale of two polar bear populations (Ursus maritimus): ice habitat, harvest, and body condition. Population Ecology 54: 3-18.

Rode, K.D., Regehr, E.V., Douglas, D.C., Durner, G., Derocher, A.E., Thiemann, G.W. and Budge, S.M. 2014b. Variation in the response of an Arctic top predator experiencing habitat loss: feeding and reproductive ecology of two polar bear populations. Global Change Biology 20: 76-88.

Rode, K.D., Reist, J.D., Peacock, E. and Stirling, I. 2010b. Comments in response to ‘‘Estimating the energetic contribution of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) summer diets to the total energy budget’’ by Dyck and Kebreab (2009). Journal of Mammalogy 91 91: 1517-1523.

Rode, K.D., Robbins, C.T., Nelson, L. and Amstrup, S.C. 2015. Can polar bears use terrestrial foods to offset lost ice-based hunting opportunities? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13: 138-145.

Russell, R.H. 1975. The food habits of polar bears of James Bay and Southwest Hudson Bay in summer and autumn. Arctic 28: 117-129.

Sahanatien, V. and Derocher, A.E. 2012. Monitoring sea ice habitat fragmentation for polar bear conservation. Animal Conservation 15: 397-406.

Schliebe, S., Rode, K.D., Gleason, J.S., Wilder, J., Proffitt, K., Evans, T.J. and Miller, S. 2008. Effects of sea ice extent and food availability on spatial and temporal distribution of polar bears during the fall open-water period in the Beaufort Sea. Polar Biology 31: 999-1010.

Schliebe, S., Wiig, Ø., Derocher, A. and Lunn, N. 2008. Ursus maritimus. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org.

Schweinsburg, R.E., Lee, L.J. and Haigh, J.C. 1982. Capturing and handling polar bears in the Canadian Arctic. In: Nielsen, L., Haigh, J.C., and Fowler, M.E. (eds), Chemical Immobilization of North American Wildlife, pp. 267-288. The Wisconsin Humane Society, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Skaare, J.U., Bernhoft, A., Derocher, A., Gabrielsen, G.W., Goksøyr, A., Henriksen, E., Larsen, H.J., Lie, E. and Wiig, Ø. 2000. Organochlorines in top predators at Svalbard - occurrence, levels and effects. Toxicology Letters 112-113: 103-109.

Skaare, J.U., Bernhoft, A., Wiig, Ø., Norum, K.R., Haug, E., Eide, D.M. and Derocher, A.E. 2001. Relationships between plasma levels of organochlorines, retinol and thyroid hormones from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part A 62: 227-241.

Smithwick, M., Norstrom, R.J., Mabury, S.A., Solomon, K., Evans, T.J., Stirling, I., Taylor, M.K. and Muir, D.C.G. 2006. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl contaminants in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from two locations in the North American Arctic, 1972-2002. Environmental Science & Technology 40: 1139-1143.

Sonne, C. 2010. Health effects from long-range transported contaminants in Arctic top predators: An integrated review based on studies of polar bears and relevant model species. Environment International 36: 461-491.

Sonne, C., Dyck, M., Rigét, F.F., Beck Jensen, J.-E., Hyldstrup, L., Letcher, R.J., Gustavson, K., Gilbert, M.T.P. and Dietz, R. 2015. Penile density and globally used chemicals in Canadian and Greenland polar bears. Environmental Research 137: 287-291.

Sonne, C., Letcher, R.J., Bechshøft, T.Ø., Rigét, F.F., Muir, D.C.G., Leifsson, P.S., Born, E.W., Hyldstrup, L., Basu, N., Kirkegaard, M., and Dietz, R. 2012. Two decades of biomonitoring polar bear health in Greenland: a review. Acta Veteterinaria Scandinavica 54: S15.

Stapleton, S., Atkinson, S., Hedman, D. and Garshelis, D. 2014. Revisiting Western Hudson Bay: Using aerial surveys to update polar bear abundance in a sentinel population. Biological Conservation 170: 38-47.

Stapleton, S., Peacock, E., Garshelis, D. and Atkinson, S. 2012. Aerial survey population monitoring of polar bears in Foxe Basin. Final project report (2-10-13) to the Nunavut Wildlife Research Trust..

Stirling, I. 1988. Attraction of polar bears Ursus maritimus to off-shore drilling sites in the eastern Beaufort Sea. Polar Record 24: 1-8.

Stirling, I. 1990. Polar bears and oil: ecologic perspectives. In: Geraci, J.R. and St. Aubin, D.J. (eds), Sea Mammals and Oil: Confronting the Risks, pp. 223-234. Academic Press, San Diego, USA.

Stirling, I. 2009. Polar bear (Ursus maritimus). In: Perrin, W.F., Würsig, B.W. and Thewissen, J.G.M. (eds), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, 2nd edition, pp. 888-890. Academic Press, San Diego.

Stirling, I. and Derocher, A.E. 1993. Possible impacts of climatic warming on polar bears. Arctic 46: 240-245.

Stirling, I. and Derocher, A.E. 2012. Effects of climate warming on polar bears: a review of the evidence. Global Change Biology 18: 2694-2706.

Stirling, I. and Parkinson, C.L. 2006. Possible effects of climate warming on selected populations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic 59: 261-275.

Stirling, I., Lunn, N.J. and Iacozza, J. 1999. Long-term trends in the population ecology of polar bears in western Hudson Bay in relation to climatic change. Arctic 52: 294-306.

Stirling, I., McDonald, T.L., Richardson, E.S., Regehr, E.V. and Amstrup, S.C. 2011. Polar bear population status in the northern Beaufort Sea, Canada, 1971–2006. Ecological Applications 21: 859-876.

Stirling, I., Pearson, A.M. and Bunnell, F.L. 1976. Population ecology studies of polar and grizzly bears in northern Canada. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 41: 421-430.

Stirling, I., Spencer, C. and Andriashek, D. 1989. Immobilization of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) with Telazol® in the Canadian Arctic. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 25: 159-168.

Stroeve, J.C., Kattsov, V., Barrett, A., Serreze, M., Pavlova, T., Holland, M. and Meier, W.N. 2012. Trends in Arctic sea ice extent from CMIP5, CMIP3 and observations. Geophysical Research Letters 39: L16502.

Stroeve, J., Holland, M.M., Meier, W., Scambos, T. and Serreze, M. 2007. Arctic sea ice decline: Faster than forecast. Geophysical Research Letters 34 34: L09501.

Sutherland, W.J. 2006. Predicting the ecological consequences of environmental change: a review of the methods. . Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 599-616.

Taylor, M. and Lee, J. 1994. Tetracycline as a biomarker for polar bears. Wildlife Society Bulletin 22: 83-89.

Taylor, M.K., DeMaster, D.P., Bunnell, F.L. and Schweinsburg, R.E. 1987. Modeling the sustainable harvest of female polar bears. Journal of Wildlife Management 51: 811-820.

Taylor, M.K., Laake, J., Cluff, H.D., Ramsay, M. and Messier, F. 2002. Managing the risk from hunting for the Viscount Melville Sound polar bear population. Ursus 13: 185-202.

Taylor, M.K., Laake, J., McLoughlin, P.D., Born, E.W., Cluff, H.D., Ferguson, S.H., Rosing-Asvid, A., Schweinsburg, R. and Messier, F. 2005. Demography and viability of a hunted population of polar bears. Arctic 58: 203-214.

Taylor, M.K., Laake, J., McLoughlin, P.D., Cluff, H.D. and Messier, F. 2006b. Demographic parameters and harvest-explicit population viability analysis for polar bears in M'Clintock Channel, Nunavut, Canada. Journal of Wildlife Management 70(1667-1673).

Taylor, M.K., Laake, J., McLoughlin, P.D., Cluff, H.D. and Messier, F. 2008b. Mark-recapture and stochastic population models for polar bears of the High Arctic. Arctic 61: 143-152.

Taylor, M.K., Laake, J., McLoughlin, P.D., Cluff, H.D. and Messier, F. 2009. Demography and population viability of polar bears in the Gulf of Boothia, Nunavut. . Marine Mammal Science 25: 778-796.

Taylor, M.K., Laake, J., McLoughlin, P.D., Cluff, H.D., Born, E.W., Rosing-Asvid, A. and Messier, F. 2008a. Population parameters and harvest risks for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of Kane Basin, Canada and Greenland. Polar Biology 31: 491-499.

Taylor, M. K., Lee, J., Laake, J. & McLoughlin, P. D. 2006a. Estimating population size of polar bears in Foxe Basin, Nunavut using tetracycline biomarkers. Department of the Environment, Government of Nunavut.

Thenius, E. 1953. Concerning the analysis of the teeth of polar bears. Mammalogical Bulletin 1: 14-20.

Thiemann, G.W., Derocher, A.E., Cherry, S.G., Lunn, N.J., Peacock, E. and Sahanatien, V. 2913. Effects of chemical immobilization on the movement rates of free-ranging polar bears. Journal of Mammalogy 94: 386-397.

Thiemann, G.W., Iverson, S.J. and Stirling, I. 2008. Polar bear diets and arctic marine food webs: insights from fatty acid analysis. Ecological Monographs 78: 591-613.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [USFWS]. 2008. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; determination of threatened status for the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) throughout its range; final rule. Federal Register 73: 28212-28303.

USFWS. 2015. Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Conservation Management Plan, Draft. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 7, Anchorage, Alaska.

Uspenski, S. M., (ed.). 1977. The polar bear and its conservation in the Soviet Arctic. A collection of scientific papers. Central Laboratory of Nature Conservation, Moscow.

van Meurs, R. and Splettstoesser, J. F. 2003. Farthest north polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Arctic 56: 309.

Van Vuuren, D.P., Edmonds, J., Kainuma, M., Riahi, K., Thomson, A., Hibbard, K., Hurtt, G.C., Kram, R., Krey, V., Lamarque, J.-F., Masui, T., Meinshausen, M., Nakicenovic, N., Smith, S.J. and Rose, S.K. 2011. The representative concentration pathways: an overview. Climate Change 109: 5-31.

Verreault, J., Gabrielsen, G.W., Chu, S., Muir, D.C.G., Andersen, M., Hamaed, A. and Letcher, R.J. 2005. Flame retardants and methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in two Norwegian Arctic top predators: Glaucous gulls and polar bears. Environmental Science & Technology 39: 6021-6028.

Verreault, J., Norstrom, R.J., Ramsay, M.A., Mulvihill, M. and Letcher, R.J. 2006. Composition of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants among major adipose tissue depots of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian high Arctic. Science of the Total Environment 370: 580-587.

Vongraven, D., Aars, J., Amstrup, S., Atkinson, S.N., Belikov, S., Born, E.W., DeBruyn, T.D., Derocher, A.E., Durner, G., Gill, M., Lunn, N.J., Obbard, M.E., Omelak, J., Ovsyanikov, N., Peacock, E., Richardson, E., Sahanatien, V., Stirling, I. and Wiig, Ø. 2012. A circumpolar monitoring framework for polar bears. Ursus Monograph Series 5: 1-66.

Watts, P.D. and Hansen, S.E. 1987. Cyclic starvation as a reproductive strategy in the polar bear. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 57: 305-318.

Weber D. S., P. J. Van Coeverden De Groot, E. Peacock, M. D. Schrenzel, D. A. Perez, S. Thomas, J. M. Shelton, C.K. Else, L.L. Darby, L. Acosta, C. Harris, J. Youngblood, P. Boag, and R. Desalle. 2013. Low MHC variation in the polar bear: implications in the face of Arctic warming? Animal Conservation 16: 671-683.

Wiig, Ø. 1998. Survival and reproductive rates for polar bears at Svalbard. Ursus 10: 25-32.

Wiig, Ø., Derocher, A.E., Cronin, M.M. and Skaare, J.U. 1998. Female pseudohermaphrodite polar bears at Svalbard. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 34: 792-796.

Wilson, D.E. 1976. Cranial variation in polar bears. International Conference on Bear Research and Management 3: 447-453.

Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. (eds). 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographical Reference. Third edition. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D. M. (eds). 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

Wilson, H.B., Kendall, B.E. and Possingham, H.P. 2011. Variability in population abundance and the classification of extinction risk. Conservation Biology 25: 747-757.

Wilson, R.R., Horne, J.S., Rode, K.D., Regehr, E.V. and Durner, G.M. 2014. Identifying polar bear resource selection patterns to inform offshore development in a dynamic and changing Arctic. Ecosphere 5(136).


Citation: Wiig, Ø., Amstrup, S., Atwood, T., Laidre, K., Lunn, N., Obbard, M., Regehr, E. & Thiemann, G. 2015. Ursus maritimus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22823A14871490. . Downloaded on 30 September 2016.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided