Phalacrocorax capensis 


Bibliography [top]

Barnes, K. N. 2000. The Eskom Red Data Book of birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Cooper, J. 1985. Foraging behaviour of nonbreeding imperial cormorants at the Prince Edward Islands. Ostrich 56: 96-100.

Crawford, R. J. M. 2013. Long-term change in the population sizes and conservation status of South Africa's seabirds. Ostrich DOI:10.2989/00306525.2013.819661: v-ix.

Crawford, R.J.M. and Dyer, B.M. 1995. Responses by four seabird species to a fluctuating availability of Cape anchovy (Engraulis capensis) off South Africa. Ibis 127: 329-339.

Crawford, R.J.M. and Shelton, P.A. 1978. Pelagic fish and seabird interrelationships off the coast of south west and south Africa. Biological Conservation 14: 85-109.

Crawford, R. J. M.; Dyer, B. M.; Kemper, J.; Simmons, R. E.; Upfold, L. 2007. Trends in numbers of Cape Cormorants (Phalacrocorax capensis) over a 50-year period, 1956–57 to 2006–07. Emu 107(4): 253–261.

David, J.H.M., Cury, P., Crawford, R.J.M., Randall, R.M., Underhill, L.G. and Meyer, M.A. 2003. Assessing conservation priorities in the Benguela ecosystem, South Africa: analysing predation by seals on threatened seabirds. Biological Conservation 114: 289-292.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Du Toit, M., Bartlett, P.A., Bester, M.N. and Roux, J.R. 2004. Seabird predation by individual seals at Ichaboe Island, Namibia. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 34(1): 45-54.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Johnsgard, P. A. 1993. Cormorants, darters, and pelicans of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Marks, M.A., Brooke, R.K. and Gildenhys, A.M. 1997. Cape fur seal (Arctophalus pusillus pusillus) predation on Cape cormorants (Phalacrocorax capensis) and other birds at Dyer Island, South Africa. Marine Ornithology 25: 9-12.

Nelson, J. B. 2005. Pelicans, cormorants and their relatives. Pelecanidae, Sulidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Anhingidae, Fregatidae, Phaethontidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2015. Phalacrocorax capensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22696806A84637355. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.
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