Triturus cristatus 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Caudata Salamandridae

Scientific Name: Triturus cristatus
Species Authority: (Laurenti, 1768)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Great Crested Newt, Northern Crested Newt
Synonym(s):
Turanomolge mensbieri Nikolsky, 1918
Taxonomic Notes: Triturus cristatus formerly was considered to include four subspecies: T. cristatus cristatus; T. cristatus dobrogicus; T. cristatus karelinii; and T. cristatus carnifex. These are now recognized as separate species of the Triturus cristatus superspecies, and the specific name Triturus cristatus (sensu stricto) is attributed to the former nominative subspecies. The exact ranges of members of the Triturus cristatus superspecies are unclear in the central Balkans because of narrow or extensive areas of hybridization.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Jan Willem Arntzen, Sergius Kuzmin, Robert Jehle, Trevor Beebee, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Natalia Ananjeva, Nikolai Orlov, Boris Tuniyev, Mathieu Denoël, Per Nyström, Brandon Anthony, Benedikt Schmidt, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a degree of habitat modification, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. Some subpopulations are threatened.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is widely distributed from the United Kingdom and northern France, through southern Scandinavia, and central Europe, enters a small part of the Balkans, to the southwestern part of West Siberia (Kurganskaya Province; records in Sverdlovskaya Province need verification). The presence of this species in southern Hungary requires verification and is not mapped here, as earlier records of T. cristatus are now believed to refer to other Triturus species (M. Puky pers. comm.). It has an altitudinal range from sea level to 1,750m asl. (Arnold, 2003).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; France; Germany; Hungary; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Moldova; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1750
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Although the species is known to be declining or rare in parts of its distribution (e.g., Belgium, where only a few sites are known), it appears to remain relatively common in suitable habitats (although usually occurring in small numbers) over parts of its range.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It can be found in coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests (composed of pine, birch, oak, alder etc.), their glades and edges, in forest steppe, bush lands, pastures, meadows, parks and gardens. Reproduction in permanent stagnant and in semi-flowing waters such as ponds, rarely lakes, flooded quarries, irrigation channels and ditches. The usage of small ponds is typical across the range. It can be found in modified habitat types, but this species is not considered to be very adaptable.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is sensitive to changes in water quality. Correspondingly, industrial pollution of water, destruction and drainage of ponds seem to be the most harmful factors for T. cristatus. The impact of natural factors such as ponds overgrowing, shallowing and eutrophication is harmful to urban populations and those near to the range margins. Introduced predatory fishes are leading to declines in some areas. In some parts of the range (of the former Soviet Union) there is substantial commercial collecting of this species for the pet trade. Habitat fragmentation is a threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention, and there is an Action Plan. Listed on Annexes II and IV of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. Protected by national legislation in many countries; recorded on many national and sub-national Red Data books and lists. Present in many protected areas. The are local conservation programmes for the species in parts of its range (e.g.. Poland, Germany). In the UK there is a need for monitoring following mitigation work.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.1. Forest - Boreal
suitability:Marginal  
1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability:Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability:Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability:Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.5. Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas
suitability:Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.1. Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
suitability:Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
suitability:Marginal  
0. Root -> 16. Introduced vegetation
suitability:Marginal  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
0. Root -> 4. Other

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

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Citation: Jan Willem Arntzen, Sergius Kuzmin, Robert Jehle, Trevor Beebee, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Natalia Ananjeva, Nikolai Orlov, Boris Tuniyev, Mathieu Denoël, Per Nyström, Brandon Anthony, Benedikt Schmidt, Agnieszka Ogrodowczyk. 2009. Triturus cristatus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T22212A9365894. . Downloaded on 26 August 2016.
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