Map_thumbnail_large_font

Trichechus manatus

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Bibliography [top]

Ackerman, B. B. 1995. Aerial surveys of manatees: A summary and progress report. In: T. J. O’Shea, B. B. Ackerman and H. F. Percival (eds), Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service Information and Technology Report 1., pp. 13-33. Washington, DC, USA.

Ackerman, B. B., Wright, S. D., Bonde, R. K., Odell, D. K. and Banowetz, D. J. 1995. Trends and patterns in the mortality of manatees in Florida, 1974–1991. In: T. J. O’Shea, B. B. Ackerman and H. F. Percival (eds), Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service Information and Technology Report 1, pp. 223–258. Washington, DC, USA.

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Baugh, T. M., Valade, J. A. and Zoodsma, B. J. 1989. Manatee use of Spartina alterniflora in Cumberland Sound. Mammal Science 5: 88-90.

Beck, C. A. and Barros, N. B. 1991. The impact of debris on the Florida manatee. Marine Pollution Bulletin 22: 508–510.

Beck, C. A. and Reid, J. P. 1995. An automated photo-identification catalog for studies of the life history of the Florida manatee. In: T. J. O’Shea, B. B. Ackerman and H. F. Percival (eds), Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service Information and Technology Report 1. Washington, DC, USA.

Bengtson, J. L. 1981. Ecology of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the St. Johns River, Florida. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Bertram, G. C. L. and Ricardo-Bertram, C. K. 1964. Manatees in the Guianas. Zoologica 49(2): 115-120.

Borobia, M. and Lodi, L. 1992. Recent observations and records of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in northeastern Brazil. Biological Conservation 59: 37–43.

Bossart, G. D., Baden, D. G., Ewing, R. Y., Roberts, B. and Wright, S. D. 1998. Brevetoxicosis in manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) from the 1996 epizootic: gross, histologic and immunohistochemical features. Toxicologic Pathology 26: 276-282.

Bossart, G. D., Ewing, R. Y., Lowe, M., Sweat, M., Decker, S. J., Walsh, C. J., Ghim, S. and Jenson, A. B. 2002. Viral papillomatosis in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Experimental and Molecular Pathology 72: 37-48.

Bossart, G. D., Meisner, R. A., Rommel, S. A., Ghim, S. and Jenson, A. B. 2002. Pathological features of the Florida manatee cold stress syndrome. Aquatic Mammals 29: 9-17.

Buckingham, C. A., Lefebvre, L. W., Schaefer, J. M. and Kochman, H. I. 1999. Manatee response to boating activity in a thermal refuge. Wildlife Society Bulletin 27: 514-522.

California Department of Fish and Game. 1990. 1989 annual report on the status of California's state listed threatened and endangered plants and animals. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Campbell, H. W. and Irvine, A. B. 1981. Manatee mortality during the unusually cold winter of 1976-1977. In: R.L. Brownell Jr. and K. Ralls (eds), The West Indian manatee in Florida, pp. 86-91. Florida Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee, FL, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Carmichael, J. S. 2001. U.S. Coast Guard letter for B. Brooks, FWS re. comments on technical/agency draft of third revision, Florida manatee recovery plan.

Craig, B. A. and Reynolds III, J. E. 2004. Determination of manatee population trends along the Atlantic coast of Florida using a Bayesian approach with temperature-adjusted aerial survey data. Marine Mammal Science 20: 386–400.

Craig, B. A., Newton, M. A., Garrott, R. A., Reynolds III, J. E. and Wilcox, J. R. 1997. Analysis of aerial survey data on Florida manatee using Markov chain Monte Carlo. Biometrics 53: 524–541.

Debrot, A. O. 2006. Records of two large in-shore verrtebrates in the Dutch Antilles: the West Indian manatee and the American Crocodile. Journal of Caribbean Science.

de Thoisy, B., Spiegelberger, T., Rousseau, S., Talvy, G., Vogel, I. and Vié, J.-C. 2003. Distribution, habitat, and conservation status of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in French Guiana. Oryx 37(4): 431–436.

Deutsch, C. J. 2000. Winter movements and use of warm-water refugia by radio-tagged West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Final Report. Florida Power and Light Company and U.S. Geological Survey, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Deutsch, C. J., Ackerman, B. B., Pitchford, T. D. and Rommel, S. A. 2002. Trends in manatee mortality in Florida. Manatee Population Ecology and Management Workshop, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Deutsch, C. J., Reid, J. P., Bonde, R. K., Easton, D. E., Kochman, H. I. and O’Shea, T. J. 2003. Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Wildlife Monographs 51: 1–77.

Deutsch, C. J., Reid, J. P., Lefebvre, L. W., Easton, D. E. and Zoodsma, B. J. 2000. Manatee response to elimination of a thermal refuge in northeastern Florida: A preliminary report of results. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Florida Manatees and Warm Water: Proceedings of the Warm-Water Workshop. Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

Domning, D.P. 1981. Distribution and status of manatees Trichechus spp. in Brazil c.1785–1973. Biological Conservation 21: 85–97.

Domning, D. P. 1982. Commercial exploitation of manatees Trichechus in Brazil c.1785–1973. Biological Conservation 22: 101–126.

Domning, D. P. and Hayek, A. C. 1986. Interspecific and intraspecific morphological variation in manatees (Sirenia: Trichechus). Marine Mammal Science 2: 87–144.

Duignan, P. J., House, C., Walsh, M. T., Campbell, T., Bossart, G. D., Duffy, N., Fernandes, P. J., Rima, B. K., Wright, S. and Geraci, J. R. 1995. Morbillivirus infection in manatees. Marine Mammal Science 11: 441–451.

Eberhardt, L. L. and O'Shea, T. J. 1995. Integration of manatee life-history data and population modeling. In: T. J. O’Shea, B .B. Ackerman and H. F. Percival (eds), Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service Information and Technology Report 1, Washington, DC, USA.

Eberhardt, L. L., Garrott, R. A. and Becker, B. L. 1999. Using trend indices for endangered species. Marine Mammal Science 15: 766–785.

Fertl, D., Schiro, A. J., Regan, G. T., Beck, C. A., Adimey, N., Price-May, L., Amos, A., Worthy, G. A. J. and Crossland, R. 2005. Manatee occurrence in the northern Gulf of Mexico, west of Florida. Gulf and Caribbean Research 17: 69-94.

Flewelling, L. J., Naar, J. P., Abbott, J. P., Baden, D. G., Barros, N. B., Bossart, G. D., Bottein, M. Y., Hammond, D. G., Haubold, E. M., Heil, C. A., Henry, M. S., Jacocks, H. M., Leighfield, T. A., Pierce, R. H., Pitchford, T. D., Rommel, S. A., Scott, P. S. and Steidinger, A., Truby, E.W., Van Dolah, F.M. and Landsberg, J.H. 2005. Brevetoxicosis: red tides and marine mammal mortalities. Nature 435(7043): 755-756.

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. 2003. Final biological status review of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Marine Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. 2007. Biological Status Reviews of the Florida manatee. Available at: http://www.floridamarine.org.

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. 2007. Manatee management plan, Trichechus manatus latirostris. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

García-Rodríguez, R. 1998. Phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus): how many populations and how many taxa? Molecular Ecology 7: 1137–1149.

Garrott, R. A., Ackerman, B. B., Cary, J. R., Heisey, D. M., Reynolds III, J. E., Rose, P. M. and Wilcox, J. R. 1994. Trends in counts of Florida manatees at winter aggregation sites. Journal of Wildlife Management 58(4): 642–654.

Gerstein, E. R., Gerstein, L., Forsythe, S. E. and Blue, J. E. 1999. The underwater audiogram of the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus). Journal of Acoustical Society of America 105(6): 3575-3583.

Gorzelany, J. 1998. Evaluation of boat traffic patterns and boater compliance in Lee County, Florida. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Gorzelany, J. 2004. Evaluation of boater compliance with manatee speed zones along the Gulf coast of Florida. Coastal Management 32: 215-226.

Gould, W. R. and Nichols, J. D. 1998. Estimation of temporal variability of survival in animal populations. Ecology 79(7): 2531–2538.

Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Hartman, D. S. 1979. Ecology and Behaviour of the manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Florida. American Society of Mammalogists Special Publication.

Harwood, J. and Hall, A. 1990. Mass mortality in marine mammals: its implications for population dynamics and genetics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5: 254–257.

Hatt, R. T. 1934. The American Museum Congo expedition manatee and other recent manatees. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 66: 533–566.

Haubold, E. M., Deutsch, C. J. and Fonnesbeck, C. 2006. Final Biological Status Review of the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Final report. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Hernandez, P., Reynolds, III, J. E., Marsh, H. and Marmontel, M. 1995. Age and seasonality in spermatogenesis of Florida manatees. In: T. J. O’Shea, B. B. Ackerman and H. F. Percival (eds), Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service Information and Technology Report 1, Washington, DC, USA.

Husar, S. L. 1978. Trichechus manatus. Mammalian Species 93: 1–5.

Irvine, A. B. 1983. Manatee metabolism and its influence on distribution in Florida. Biological Conservation 25: 315–334.

IUCN. 1990. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1986. 1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1988. 1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Jiménez, I. 2002. Heavy poaching in prime habitat: the conservation status of the West Indian manatee in Nicaragua. Oryx 36(3): 272–278.

Johansson, J. O. R. and Greening, H. S. 2000. Seagrass restoration in Tampa Bay: a resource-based approach to estuarine management. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Kendall, W. L., Langtimm, C. A., Beck, C. A. and Runge, M. C. 2004. Capture-recapture analysis for estimating manatee reproductive rates. Marine Mammal Science 20: 424–437.

King, J. M. and Heinen, J. T. 2004. An assessment of the behaviors of overwintering manatees as influenced by interactions with tourists at two sites in central Florida. Biological Conservation 117: 227-234.

Koelsch, J. 2001. Reproduction in female manatees observed in Sarasota Bay, Florida. Marine Mammal Science 17: 331–342.

Koelsch, J. K. 1997. The seasonal occurrence and ecology of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in coastal waters near Sarasota, Florida. M.S. Thesis, University of South Florida.

Kurz, R. C., Tomasko, D. A., Burdick, D., Ries, T. F., Patterson, K. and Finck, R. 2000. Recent trends in seagrass distributions in southwest Florida coastal waters. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Lacy, R. C. 1993. VORTEX: a computer simulation model for Population Viability Analysis. Wildlife Research 20: 45–65.

Laist, D. W. and Reynolds III, J. E. 2005. Florida manatees, warm-water refuges, and an uncertain future. Coastal Management 33: 279–295.

Laist, D. W. and Reynolds III, J. E. 2005. Influence of power plants and other warm-water refuges on Florida manatees. Marine Mammal Science 21(4): 739-764.

Laist, D. W. and Shaw, C. 2006. Preliminary evidence that boat speed restrictions reduce deaths of Florida manatees. Marine Mammal Science 22: 472-479.

Landsberg, J. H. and Steidinger, K. A. 1998. A Historical Review of Gymnodium Breve Red Tides Implicated in Mass Mortality of the Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida, USA. Xunta de Galicia and International Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Landsberg, J. H., Van Dolah, F. and Doucette, G. 2005. Marine and estuarine harmful algal blooms: Impacts on human and animal health. Springer, New York., USA.

Landsea, C. W., Nicholls, N. and Avila, L. A. 1996. Downward trends in the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes during the past five decades. Geophysical Research Letters 23: 1697-1700.

Langtimm, C. A. and Beck, C. A. 2003. Lower survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees in years with intense coastal storms. Ecological Applications 13: 257–268.

Langtimm, C. A., Beck, C. A., Edwards, H. H., Fick-Child, K. J., Ackerman, B. B., Barton, S. L. and Hartley, W. C. 2004. Survival estimates for Florida manatees from the photo-identification of individuals. Marine Mammal Science 20: 438–463.

Langtimm, C. A., O'Shea, T. J., Pradel, R. and Beck, C. A. 1998. Estimates of annual survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Ecology 78(3): 981–997.

Lazcano-Barrero, M. A. and Packard, J. M. 1989. The occurrence of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 5(2): 202-205.

Lefebvre, L. W., Ackerman, B. B., Portier, K. M. and Pollock, K. H. 1995. Aerial survey as a technique for estimating trends in manatee population size — problems and prospects. In: T. J. O’Shea, B. B. Ackerman and H. F. Percival (eds), Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service Information and Technology Report, Washington, DC, USA.

Lefebvre, L. W. and Frohlich, R. K. 1986. Movements of radio-tagged manatees in southwest Florida, January 1985 - March 1986. Sirenia Project. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Florida Department of Natural Resources.

Lefebvre, L. W., Marmontel, M., Reid, J. P., Rathbun, G. B. and Domning, D. P. 2001. Status and biogeography of the West Indian manatee. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Lefebvre, L. W., Reid, J. P., Kenworthy, W. J. and Powell, J. A. 2000. Characterizing manatee habitat use and seagrass grazing in Florida and Puerto Rico: implications for conservation and management. Pacific Conservation Biology 5: 289-298.

Lightsey, J. D., Rommel, S. A., Costidis, A. M. and Pitchford, T. 2006. Gross necropsy diagnosis of watercraft-related mortality in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 37(3): 262-275.

Lipscomb, T. P., Schulman, F. Y., Moffett, D. and Kennedy, S. 1994. Morbilliviral disease in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the 1987-1988 epizootic. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 30: 567–571.

Manatee Population Status Working Group. 2005. Biological population assessment of the Florida Manatee. Manatee Population Status Working Group, Florida Manatee Recovery and Implementation Team to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Marmontel, M. 1995. Age and reproduction in female Florida manatees. In: T. J. O’Shea, B. B. Ackerman and H. F. Percival (eds), Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service Information and Technology Report 1, Washington, DC, USA.

Marmontel, M., Humphrey, S. R. and O’Shea, T. J. 1997. Population viability analysis of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 1976–1991. Conservation Biology 11(2): 467–481.

Marmontel, M., O'Shea, T. J., Kochman, H. I. and Humphrey, S. R. 1996. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone. Marine Mammal Science 12: 54-88.

McCarthy, J. J., Canziani, O. F., Leary, N. A., Dokken, D. J. and White, K. S. 2001. Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation and vulnerabilty. Contributions of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A. and Beck, C. A. 1998. The diet of the manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico. Marine Mammal Science 14(2): 394–397.

Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A., Montoya-Ospina, R. A., Jiménez-Marrero, N. M., Rodriguez-López, M. A., Williams Jr., E. H. and Bonde, R. K. 2000. Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico. Environmental Management 25(2): 189–198.

Miller, P. S. and Lacy, R. C. 1999. VORTEX: a stochastic simulation of the extinction process. IUCN SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota, USA.

Milligan, M. W. and Tennant, J. S. 1998. An assessment of propeller guards designed for inboard vessels on vessel operation and manatee protection. Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Marine Resources, Protected Species Management, Florida, USA.

Montgomery, G. G., Gale, N. B. and Murdoch Jr., W. P. 1982. Have manatee entered the eastern Pacific Ocean? Mammalia 46(2): 257–258.

Montoya-Ospina, R. A., Caicedo-Herrera, D., Millán-Sanchez, S. L., Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A. and Lefebvre, L. W. 2001. Status and distribution of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia. Biological Conservation 102: 117–129.

Moore, J. C. 1951. The range of the Florida manatee. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Science 14: 1–19.

Morales-Vela, B. and Olivera-Gómez, L. D. 1997. Distribución del manati (Trichechus manatus) en la costa norte y centro-norte del estado de Quintana Roo, México. Ser. Zool 68(1): 153–164.

Morales-Vela, B., Olivera-Gómez, D., Reynolds, III, J. E. and Rathbun, G. B. 2000. Distribution and habitat use by manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Belize and Chetumal Bay, Mexico. Biological Conservation 95: 67–75.

Morales-Vela, B., Padilla-Saldivar, J. A. and Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A. 2003. Status of the manatee (Trichechus manatus) along the northern and western coasts of the Yucatán Peninsula, México. Caribbean Journal of Science 39(1): 42–49.

Mou Sue, L. L., Chen, D. H., Bonde, R. K. and O'Shea, T. J. 1990. Distribution and status of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Panama. Marine Mammal Science 6(3): 234–241.

Odell, D. K., Bossart, G. D., Lowe, M. T. and Hopkins, T. D. 1995. Reproduction of the West Indian manatee in captivity. In: T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman and H. F. Percival (eds), Population biology of the Florida manatee. Information and Technology Report 1. U.S. Department of the Interior, NBS.

O'Donoghue, M., Hofer, E. and Doyle, F. I. 1995. Predator versus predator - In the Yukon, when the going gets tough, the tough get eaten. Natural History 3: 95-96.

Olivera-Gómez, L. D. and Mellink, E. 2002. Spatial and temporal variation in counts of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) during distribution surveys at Bahia de Chetumal, Mexico. Aquatic Mammals 28(3): 285–293.

Olivera-Gómez, L. D. and Mellink, E. 2005. Distribution of the Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) as a function of habitat characteristics in Bahia de Chetumal, Mexico. Biological Conservation 121(1): 127–133.

Ortiz, R. M., Worthy, G. A. J. and Byers, F. M. 1999. Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water. The Journal of Experimental Biology 202: 33–38.

Ortiz, R. M., Worthy, G. A. J. and MacKenzie, D. S. 1998. Osmoregualtion in wild and captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus). Physiological Zoology 71(4): 449–457.

O’Shea, T. J. 1988. The past, present and future of manatees in the southeastern United States: realities, misunderstanding, and enigmas. In: R. R. Odom, K. A. Riddleberger and J. C. Ozier (eds), Proceedings of the Third Southeastern Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Symposium. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Game and Fish Division., Social Circle, GA.

O’Shea, T. J. 1995. Waterborne recreation and the Florida manatee. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.

O'Shea, T. J. and Ackerman, B. B. 1995. Population biology of the Florida manatee: an overview. In: T. J. O’Shea, B .B. Ackerman and H. F. Percival (eds), Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service Information and Technology Report 1., Washington, DC, USA.

O'Shea, T. J. and Hartley, W. C. 1995. Reproduction and early age survival of manatees at Blue Spring, Upper St. Johns River, Florida. In: T. J. O’Shea, B .B. Ackerman and H. F. Percival (eds), Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service Information and Technology Report 1., Washington, DC, USA.

O'Shea, T. J. and Kochman, H. I. 1990. Florida manatees: distribution, geographically referenced data sets, and ecological and behavioral aspects of habitat use. In: J. E. Reynolds, III and K. D. Haddad (eds), Report of the workshop on Geographic Information Systems as an aid to managing habitat for West Indian manatees in Florida and Georgia. Florida Marine Research Publications,.

O'Shea, T. J. and Salisbury, C. A. 1991. Belize — a last stronghold for manatees in the Caribbean. Oryx 25: 156–164.

O'Shea, T. J., Beck, C. A., Bonde, R. K., Kochman, H. I. and Odell, D. K. 1985. An analysis of manatee mortality patterns in Florida, 1976–81. Journal of Wildlife Management 49: 1–11.

O'Shea, T. J., Lefebvre, L. W. and Beck, C. A. 2001. Florida manatees: perspectives on populations, pain, and protection. In: L A. Dierauf and F. M. D. Gulland (eds), Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine, 2nd edition, pp. 31–43. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

O'Shea, T. J., Rathbun, G. B., Bonde, R. K., Buergelt, C. D. and Odell, D. K. 1991. An epizootic of Florida manatees associated with a dinoflagellate bloom. Marine Mammal Science 7: 165–179.

Osterhaus, A. D. M. E., Groen, J. P., DeVries, P., UytdeHaag, F. G. C. M., Klingeborn, B. and Zarnke, R. 1988. Canine distemper virus in seals. Nature 335: 403–404.

Ottenwalder, J. A. 1995. Situacion del manati en la Republica Dominicana. Dominican Business 32: 41–44.

Packard, J. M. 1984. Impact of manatees Trichechus manatus on seagrass communities in eastern Florida. Acta Zoologica Fennica 172: 21-22.

Packard, J. M., Frohlich, R. K., Reynolds III, J. E. and Wilcox, J. R. 1989. Manatee response to interruption of a thermal effluent. Journal of Wildlife Management 53: 692–700.

Parente, C. L., Vergara-Parente, J. E. and Lima, R. P. 2004. Strandings of Antillean manatees. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 3(1): 69–75.

Powell, J. A. and Rathbun, G. B. 1984. Distribution and abundance of manatees along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Northeast Gulf Science 7(1): 1–97.

Preen, A. R. and Marsh, H. 1995. Response of dugongs to large-scale loss of seagrass from Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia. Wildlife Research 22: 507–519.

Provancha, J. A. and Hall, C. R. 1991. Observations of associations between seagrass beds and manatees in east central Florida. Florida Scientist 54: 87-98.

Provancha, J. A. and Provancha, M. J. 1988. Long-term trends in abundance and distribution of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the northern Banana River, Brevard County, Florida. Marine Mammal Science 4: 323-338.

Rathbun, G. B., Bonde, R. K. and Clay, D. 1982. The status of the West Indian manatee on the Atlantic Coast north of Florida. In: R. R. Odom and J. W. Guthrie (eds), Proceedings of the symposium on nongame and endangered wildlife. Technical Bulletin WL5. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Game and Fish Division.

Rathbun, G. B., Powell, J. A. and Cruz, G. 1983. Status of the West Indian manatee in Honduras. Biological Conservation 26: 301–308.

Rathbun, G. B., Reid, J. P. and Carowan, G. 1990. Distribution and movement patterns of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in northwestern peninsular Florida. Florida Marine Research Publication 48: 1–33.

Rathbun, G. B., Reid, J. P., Bonde, R. K. and Powell, J. A. 1995. Reproduction in free-ranging Florida manatees. In: T.J. O’Shea, B. B. Ackerman and H. F. Percival (eds), Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service Information and Technology Report 1, Washington, DC, USA.

Reep, R. L. and Bonde, R. K. 2006. The Florida Manatee: Biology And Conservation. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Reid, J. P. 2000. Florida manatee now resident in the Bahamas. Sirenews 33: 7–8.

Reid, J. P. 2001. Manatee Birth in the Bahamas. Sirenews 36: 16.

Reid, J. P., Bonde, R. K. and O'Shea, T. J. 1995. Reproduction and mortality of radio-tagged and recognizable manatees on the Atlantic coast of Florida. In: T. J. O’Shea, B. B. Ackerman and H. F. Percival (eds), Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service Information and Technology Report 1, Washington DC, USA.

Reid, J. P., Rathbun, G. B. and Wilcox, J. R. 1991. Distribution patterns of individually identifiable West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida. Marine Mammal Science 7: 180–190.

Reynolds III, J. E. 1999. Efforts to conserve the manatees. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, USA.

Reynolds III, J. E. 2000. Possible locations for long-term warm-water refugia for manatees in Florida: alternatives to power plants. Final Report prepared for the Department of Environmental Services, Florida. lorida Power and Light Company, Juno, Florida.

Reynolds, III, J. E. and Wilcox, J. R. 1994. Observations of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) around selected power plants in winter. Marine Mammal Science 10: 163–177.

Reynolds III, J. E., Szelistowsky, W. A. and León, M. A. 1995. Status and conservation of manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in Costa Rica. Biologicl Conservation 71: 193–196.

Romero, A. and Hayford, K. 2000. Past and present utilization of marine mammals in Grenada, West Indies. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2(3): 223–226.

Romero, A., Hayford, K. T., Romero, A. and Romero, J. 2002. The marine mammals of Grenada, W.I., and their conservation status. Mammalia 66(4): 49–494.

Rose, P. M. 1997. Manatees and the future of electric utilities deregulation in Florida. Sirenews 29: 1–3.

Runge, M. C. 2003. Appendix I: A model for assessing incidental take of manatees due to watercraft-related activities. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

Runge, M. C., Langtimm, C. A. and Kendall, W. L. 2004. A stage-based model of manatee population dynamics. Marine Mammal Science 20: 361–385.

Sargent, F. J., Leary, T. J., Crewz, D. W. and Kruer, C. R. 1995. Scarring of Florida’s seagrasses: assessment and management options. FMRI Technical Report TR-1. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Schwartz, F. J. 1995. Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus (Sirenia: Trichechidae), in North Carolina 1919-1994. Brimleyana 22: 53-60.

Scott, G. P., Burn, D. M. and Hansen, L. J. 1988. The dolphin die-off: long-term effects and recovery of the population. Proceedings of Oceans 1988: 819–823.

Scott, P. 1965. Section XIII. Preliminary List of Rare Mammals and Birds. The Launching of a New Ark. First Report of the President and Trustees of the World Wildlife Fund. An International Foundation for saving the world's wildlife and wild places 1961-1964, pp. 15-207. Collins, London, UK.

Self-Sullivan, C., Smith, G. W., Packard, J. M. and LaCommare, K. S. 2003. Seasonal occurrence of male Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) on the Belize Barrier Reef. Aquatic Mammals 29(3): 342–254.

Shapiro, S. L. 2001. Assessing boater compliance with manatee speed zones in Florida. Final report submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Grant No. 2280.. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Smethurst, D. and Nietschmann, B. 1999. The distribution of manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the coastal waterways of Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Biological Conservation 89: 267–274.

Smith, K. N. 1993. Manatee habitat and human-related threats to seagrass in Florida: A review. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, FL, USA.

Spiegelberger, T. and Ganslosser, U. 2005. Habitat analysis and exclusive bank feeding of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus L. 1758) in the Coswine Swamps of French Guiana, South America. Tropical Zoology 18: 1–12.

Stevenson, J. C., Staver, L. W. and Staver, K. W. 1993. Water quality associated with survival of submerged aquatic vegetation along an estuarine gradient. Estuaries 16: 346-361.

Sucsy, P., Hupalo, R. and Freeman, B. 1998. Minimum flow determination for Blue Spring, Volusia County: The relationship between ground water discharge and winter refuge for manatees. Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, Florida, USA.

Thornback, J. and Jenkins, M. 1982. The IUCN Mammal Red Data Book. Part 1: Threatened mammalian taxa of the Americas and the Australasian zoogeographic region (excluding Cetacea). IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

United Nations Environment Programme. 1995. Regional Management Plan for the West Indian Manatee, Trichechus manatus. UNEP Caribbean Environmental Programme, Kingston, Jamaica.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2001. 2001 Census. Available at: http://www.census.gov/population.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2000. Florida manatees and warm water: Proceedings of the Warm-Water Workshop. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Jupiter, Florida, USA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2001. Florida Manatee Recovery Plan (Trichechus manatus latirostris), 3rd revision. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Vianna, J.A., Bonde, R.K., Caballero, S., Giraldo, J.P., Lima, R.P., Clark, A., Marmontel, M., Morales-Vela, B., De Souza, M.J., Parr, L., Rodríguez-Lopez, M.A., Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A., Powell, J.A. and Santos, F.R. 2006. Phylogeography, phylogeny and hybridization in trichechid sirenians: implications on manatee conservation. Molecular Ecology 15: 433–447.

Weigle, B. L., Wright, I. E., Ross, M. and Flamm, R. 2001. Movements of radio-tagged manatees in Tampa Bay and along Florida’s west coast, 1991–1996. Florida Marine Research Institute Technical Report TR-7. Florida Marine Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.

Woodruff, R. A., Bonde, R. K., Bonilla, J. A. and Romero, C. H. 2005. Molecular identification of a papilloma virus from cutaneous lesions of captive and free-ranging Florida manatees. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41: 437-441.

Wright, I. E., Reynolds III, J. E., Ackerman, B. B., Ward, L. I., Weigle, B. L. and Szelistowski, W. A. 2002. Trends in manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) counts and habitat use in Tampa Bay, 1987-1994: Implications for conservation. Marine Mammal Science 18: 259–274.

Wright, S. D., Ackerman, B. B., Bonde, R. K., Beck, C. A. and Banowetz, D. J. 1995. Analysis of watercraft-related mortality of manatees in Florida, 1979–1991. In: T. J. O’Shea, B. B. Ackerman and H. F. Percival (eds), Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service Information and Technology Report 1, Washington, DC, USA.

Zoodsma, B. J. 1991. Distribution and behavioral ecology of manatees in southeastern Georgia. Thesis, University of Florida.


Citation: Deutsch, C.J., Self-Sullivan, C. & Mignucci-Giannoni, A. 2008. Trichechus manatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 September 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided