Acinonyx jubatus 


Bibliography [top]

Andresen, L., Everatt. K.T., Somers. M.J. and Purchase, G.K. 2012. Evidence for a resident population of cheetah in the Parque Nacional do Limpopo, Mozambique. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 42: 144-146.

Anon. 2010. Cheetahs make a miraculous comeback in Angola. Available at:

Belbachir, F. 2007. Les grands questions relative a la conservation des grands felins d'Algerie: cas du guepard et du leopard. In: R. Berzins and F. Belbachir (eds), Compte-rendu de la deuxième réunion de l’Observatoire du Guépard en Régions d’Afrique du Nord (OGRAN), 20-25 Novembre 2006, Tamanrasset, Algé, pp. 8-10. Société Zoologique de Paris (SZP), Paris, France.

Belbachir, F., Pettorelli, N., Wacher, T., Belbachir-Bazi, A. and Durant, S.M. 2015. Monitoring Rarity: The Critically Endangered Saharan Cheetah as a flagship species for a threatened ecosystem. PLoS One 10(1): e0115136. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115136.

Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P., Gittleman, J.L. and Purvis, A. 1999. Building large trees by combining phylogenetic information: a complete phylogeny of the extant Carnivora (Mammalia). Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 74: 143-175.

Boast L. 2014. Exploring the causes of and mitigation options for human-predator conflict on game ranches in Botswana: How is coexistence possible? Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town.

Bowland, T. 1995. Cheetahs of the Kruger Park. Custos: 8-15.

Broekhuis, F., Cozzi, G., Valeix, M., McNutt, J.W. and Macdonald, D.W. 2013. Risk avoidance in sympatric large carnivores: reactive or predictive? Journal of Animal Ecology 82: 1097-1105.

Broekhuis, F., Gruenewaelder, S., McNutt, J.W. and Macdonald, D.W. 2014. Optimal hunting conditions drive circalunar behavior of a diurnal carnivore. Behaviour Ecology 25: 1268-1275.

Broomhall, L.S., Mills, M.G.L. and du Toit J.T. 2003. Home range and habitat use by cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Kruger National Park. Journal of Zoology 261: 119-128.

Burney, D.A. 1980. The effects of human activities on cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Mara region of Kenya. Thesis, University of Nairobi.

Caro, T.M. 1994. Cheetahs of the Serengeti Plains: Group living in an asocial species. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.

Caro, T.M. and Collins, D.A. 1987. Male cheetah social organisation and territoriality. Ethology 74: 52-64.

Caro, T.M., Holt, M.E., FitzGibbon, C.D., Bush, M., Hawkey, C.M. and Kock, R.A. 1987. Health of adult free-living cheetahs. Journal of Zoology 212: 573-584.

Chilufya, E. and Purchase, N. 2011. Cheetahs in Kafue National Park and Nkala Game Management Area Zambia. Cat News 54: 22-24.

CITES. 1992. Quotas for trade in specimens of cheetah. Submitted by Namibia to the 8th meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Doc 8.22 (Rev). Kyoto, Japan.

CITES. 2013. Illegal trade in cheetahs. Submitted by Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda to the 16th meeting of the Conference of the Parties Doc 51 (Rev1). Bangkok, Thailand.

Cooper, A.B., Pettorelli, N. and Durant, S.M. 2007. Large carnivore menus: factors affecting hunting decisions by cheetahs in the Serengeti. Animal Behaviour 73: 651-659.

Croes, B., Funston, P., Rasmussen, G., Buij, R., Saleh, A., Tumenta, P.N. and de Iongh, H.H. 2011. The impact of trophy hunting on lions (Panthera leo) and other large carnivores in the Benoué Complex, northern Cameroon. Biological Conservation 144: 3064-3072.

Dehghan, S.K. 2013. Cheetahs' Iranian revival cheers conservationists. Available at:

De Iongh, H.H., Croes, B., Rasmussen, G., Buij, R. and Funston, P. 2011. The status of cheetah and African wild dog in the Bénoué Ecosystem, North Cameroon. Cat News 55: 29-31.

Dickman, A.J., Hazzah, L., Carbone, C. and Durant, S.M. 2014. Carnivores, culture and 'contagious conflict': Multiple factors influence perceived problems with carnivores in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape. Biological Conservation 178: 19-27.

Divyabhanusinh. 1995. The end of a trail - The cheetah in India. Banyan Books, New Delhi, India.

Djagoun, C.M.S., Akpona, H., Mensah, G.A., Nuttman, C. and Sinsin, B. 2013. Wild Mammals Trade for Zootherapeutic and Mythic Purposes in Benin (West Africa): Capitalizing Species Involved, Provision Sources, and Implications for Conservation. In: Akvesm, R.R.N. and Rosa, I.L. (eds), Animals in Traditional Folk Medicine, pp. 367-381. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg.

Durant, S. 2007. Range-wide conservation planning for cheetah and wild dog. Cat News 46: 13.

Durant, S.M. 1998. Competition refuges and coexistence: an example from Serengeti carnivores. Journal Animal Ecology 67: 370-386.

Durant, S.M. 2000a. Living with the enemy: avoidance of hyenas and lions by cheetahs in the Serengeti. Behavioral Ecology 11: 624-632.

Durant, S.M. 2000b. Predator avoidance, breeding experience and reproductive success in endangered cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Animal Behaviour 60: 121-130.

Durant, S.M., Bashir, S., Maddox, T. and Laurenson, M.K. 2007. Relating long-term studies to conservation practice: The case of the Serengeti Cheetah Project. Conservation Biology 21: 602-611.

Durant, S.M., Caro, T.M., Collins, D.A., Alawi, R.M. and Fitzgibbon, C.D. 1988. Migration patterns of Thomson's gazelles and cheetahs on the Serengeti Plains. African Journal of Ecology 26: 257.

Durant, S.M., Craft, M.E., Foley, C., Hampson, K., Lobora, A.L., Msuha, M., Eblate, E., Bukombe, J., McHetto, J. and Pettorelli, N. 2010a. Does size matter? An investigation of habitat use across a carnivore assemblage in the Serengeti, Tanzania. Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 1012-1022.

Durant, S.M., Craft, M.E., Hilborn, R., Bashir, S., Hando, J. and Thomas, L. 2011. Long-term trends carnivore abundance using distance sampling in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 1490-1500.

Durant, S.M., Dickman, A.J., Maddox, T., Waweru, M.N., Caro, T. and Pettorelli, N. 2010b. Past, present anf future of cheetahs in Tanzania: their behavioural ecology and conservation.

Durant, S.M., Kelly, M., Caro, T.M. 2004. Factors affecting life and death in Serengeti cheetahs: environment, age and sociality. Behavioral Ecology 15: 11-22.

Durant, S.M., Wacher, T., Bashir, S., Woodroffe, R., De Ornellas, P., Ransom, C., Newby, J., Abaigar, T., Abdelgadir, M., El Alqamy, H., Baillie, J., Beddiaf, M., Belbachir, F., Belbachir-Bazi, A., Berbash, A.A., Bemadjim, N.E., Beudels-Jamar, R., Boitani, L., Breitenmoser, C., Cano, M., Chardonnet, P., Collen, B., Cornforth, W.A., Cuzin, F., Gerngross, P., Haddane, B., Hadjeloum, M., Jacobson, A., Jebali, A., Lamarque, F., Mallon, D., Minkowski, K., Monfort, S., Ndoassal, B., Niagate, B., Purchase, G., Samaila, S., Samna, A.K., Sillero-Zubiri, C., Soultan, A.E., Price, M.R.S. and Pettorelli, N. 2014. Fiddling in biodiversity hotspots while deserts burn? Collapse of the Sahara's megafauna. Diversity and Distributions 20: 114-122.

Farhadinia, M.S., Hosseini-Zavarei, F., Nezami, B., Harati, H., Absalan, H., Fabiano, E. and Marker, L. 2012. Feeding ecology of the Asiatic cheetah Acinonyx jubatus venaticus in low prey habitats in northeastern Iran: Implications for effective conservation. Journal of Arid Environments 87: 206-211.

Fitzinger, H. 1855. Bericht an die kaiserl. Academie der Wissenschaften uber die von dem Herrn Consulatsverweser Dr. Theodor v. Heuglin fur die kaiserliche Menagerie zu Schonbrunn mitgebrachten lebenden Tiere. Mathematische-Naturwisenschaftliche Classe 17: 242-253.

Gakuya, F., Ombui, J., Maingi, N., Muchemi, G., Ogara, W., Soriguer, R.C. and Alasaad, S. 2012. Sarcoptic mange and cheetah conservation in Masai Mara (Kenya): epidemiological studiy in a wildlife/livestock system. Parasitology 139: 1587-1595.

Gottelli, D., Wang, J., Bashir, S. and Durant, S.M. 2007. Genetic analysis reveals promiscuity among female cheetahs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 274: 1993-2001.

Griffith, E. 1821. General and particulated descriptions of the vertebrated animals, arranged conformably to the modern discoveries and improvements in zoology. Baldwin, Cradock and Joy, London, UK.

Habibi, K. 2003. Mammals of Afghanistan. Zoo Outreach Organisation/USFWS, Coimbatore, India.

Henry, W. 1975. A Preliminary Report on Visitor Use in Amoslei National Park. Working paper no. 263, Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi.

Henry, W. 1980. Patterns of Tourist Use in Kenya's Amboseli National Park: Implications for Planning and Managmenet. In: Hawkins, D., Shafer, E. and Rovelstad, J. (eds), Tourism Marketing and Management Issues, pp. 43-57. George Washington University, Washington D.C.

Henschel, P., Coad, L., Burton, C., Chataigner, B., Dunn, A., MacDonald, D., Saidu, Y. and Hunter, L.T.B. 2014a. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered. PLoS ONE 9(1): e83500.

Henschel, P., Malanda, G.A. and Hunter, L. 2014b. The status of savanna carnivores in the Odzala-Kokoua National Park, northern Republic of Congo. Journal of Mammalogy 95: 882-892.

Hilborn, A., Pettorelli, N., Orme, C.D.L. and Durant, S.M. 2012. Stalk and chase: how hunts stages affect hunting success in Serengeti cheetah. Animal Behaviour 84: 701-706.

Hilzheimer, M. 1913. Über neue Gepparden nebst Bemerkungen uber die Nomenklatur dieser Tiere. Sitzungbericht der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 5: 283-292.

Hunter, J.S., Durant, S.M. and Caro, T.M. 2007a. Patterns of scavenger arrival at cheetah kills in Serengeti Naitonal Park Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology 45: 275-281.

Hunter, J.S., Durant, S.M. and Caro, T.M. 2007b. To flee or not to flee: predator avoidance by cheetahs at kills. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61: 1033-1042.

Hunter, L., Jowkar, H., Ziaie, H., Schaller, G., Balme, G., Walzer, C., Ostrowski, S., Zahler, P., Robert-Charrue, N., Kashiri, K. and Christie, S. 2007c. Conserving the Asiatic cheetah in Iran: Launching the first radio-telemetry study. Cat News 46: 8-11.

Husain, T. 2001. Survey for the Asiatic cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, in Balochistan province, Pakistan. Barbara Delano Foundation.

Inskip, C. and Zimmermann, A. 2009. Human-felid conflict: a review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx 43: 18-34.

Iranian Cheetah Society. 2013. More than 40% of Cheetahs Killed on Roads in Iran. Available at:

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

IUCN SSC. 2007a. Regional conservation strategy for the cheetah and African wild dog in Eastern Africa. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.

IUCN SSC. 2007b. Regional conservation strategy for the cheetah and African wild dog in Southern Africa. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.

IUCN SSC. 2008. Strategic Planning for Species Conservation: An Overview. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

IUCN SSC. 2012. Regional conservation strategy for the cheetah and African wild dog in Western, Central and Northern Africa. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

IUCN SSC. Review of the Regional Conservation Strategy for the Cheetah and African Wild Dog in Southern Africa. Gland, Switzerland.

IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2014. Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 11. Available at: Downloadable from .

Johnson, W. E. and O'Brien, S. J. 1997. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 mitochondrial genes. Journal of Molecular Evolution 44: S98-S116.

Johnson, W.E., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W.J., Antunes, A., Teeling, E. and O'Brien, S.J. 2006. The late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: a genetic assessment. Science 311: 73-77.

Johnson, W.E., Eizirik, E., Pecon-Slattery, J., Murphy, W.J., Antunes, A., Teeling, E. and O'Brien, S.J. 2006. The late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assesstment. Science 311: 73-77.

Jowkar, H., Ostrowski, S. and Hunter, L. 2008. Asiatic cheetah cub recovered from poacher in Iran. Cat News 48: 13.

Kaiser, C., Wernery, U., Kinne, J., Marker, L. and Liesegang, A. 2014. The role of copper and vitamin A deficiencies leading to neurological signs in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and lions (Panthera leo) in the United Arab Emirates. Food and Nutrition Sciences 5(20): 1978-1990.

Kelly, M. J. 2001. Lineage loss in Serengeti cheetahs: Consequences of high reproductive variance and heritability of fitness on effective population size. Conservation Biology 15: 137-147.

Krausman, P.R. and Morales, S.M. 2005. Acinonyx jubatus. Mammalian Species 771: 1-6.

Laurenson, M.K. 1994. High juvenile mortality in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and its consequences for maternal care. Journal of Zoology (London) 234: 387-408.

Laurenson, M.K. 1995. Implications of high offspring mortality for cheetah population dynamics. In: Sinclair, A.R.E. and Arcese, P. (eds), Serengeti II: Dynamics, management and conservation of an ecosystem, pp. 385-399. University of Chicago Press , Chicago.

Laurenson, M.K., Caro, T. and Borner, M. 1992. Female cheetah reproduction. Research and Exploration 8: 64-75.

Lindsey, P.A., Balme, G., Becker, M., Begg, C., Bento, C., Bocchino, C., Dickman, A., Diggle, R.W., Eves, H., Henschel, P., Lewis, D., Marnewick, K., Mattheus, J., McNutt, J.W., McRobb, R., Midlane, N., Milanzi, J., Morley, R., Murphree, M., Opyene, V., Phadima, J., Purchase, G., Rentsch, D., Roche, C., Shaw, J., Van der Westhuizen, H.,Van Vliet, N. and Zisadza-Gandiwa, P. 2013a. The bushmeat trade in African savannas: Impacts, drivers, and possible solutions. Biological Conservation 160: 80-96.

Mallon, D.P. 2007. Cheetahs in Central Asia: A historical summary. Cat News 46: 4-7.

Marker, L.L. 2002. Aspects of Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Biology, Ecology and Conservation Strategies on Namibian Farmlands. Thesis, Lady Margaret Hall, University of Oxford.

Marker, L.L., Dickman, A.J., Jeo, R.M., Mills, M.G.L. and Macdonald, D.W. 2003c. Demography of the Namibian cheetah Acinonyx jubatus jubatus. Biological Conservation 114: 413-425.

Marker, L.L., Macdonald, D.W. and Mills, M.G.L. 2003a. Factors influencing perceptions of conflict and tolerance toward cheetahs on Namibian farmlands. Conservation Biology 17: 1290-1298.

Marker, L.L., Muntifering, J.R., Dickman, A.J., Mills, M.G.L. and Macdonald, D.W. 2003b. Quantifying prey preferences of free-ranging Namibian cheetahs. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 33: 43-53.

Marnewick, K.A., Bothma, J.d.P. and Verdoorn, G.H. 2006. Using camera-trapping to investigate the use of a tree as a scent-marking post by cheetahs in the Thabazimbi district. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 36: 139-145.

Marnewick, K., Beckhelling, A., Cilliers, D., Lane, E., Mills, G., Herring, K., Caldwell, P., Hall, R. and Meintjes, S. 2007. The status of the cheetah in South Africa. Cat News Special Issue 3: 22-31.

Mattern, M.Y. and Mclennan, D.A. 2000. Phylogeny and speciation of felids. Cladistics 16: 232.

Mills, M.G.L. and Mills,M.E.J. 2014. Cheetah cub survival revisted: a re-evaluation of the role of predation, especially by lions, and implications for conservation. Journal of Zoology 292: 136-141.

Mills, M.G.L., Broomhall, L.S. and du Toit, J.T. 2004. Cheetah Acinonyx jubatus feeding ecology in the Kruger Naitonal Park and a comparison across African savanna habitats: is the cheetah only a successful hunter on open grassland plains? Wildlife Biology 10: 177-186.

Nowell, K. 2014. An assessment of the conservation impacts of legal and illegal trade in cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus. IUCN SSC Cat Specilaist Group report prepared for the CITES Secretariat, 65th meeting of the CITES Standing Committee, Geneva, 7-11 July. CITES SC65 Doc. 39. Available at:

Nowell, K. and Jackson, P. 1996. Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

O'Brien, S.J. and Johnson, W E. 2007. The evolution of cats. Scientific American July: 68-75.

O'Brien, S. J., Wildt, D. E. and Bush, M. 1987. East African cheetahs: Evidence for two population bottlenecks? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 84: 508-511.

Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.

Pettorelli, N., Hilborn, A., Broekhuis, F. and Durant, S.M. 2009. Exploring habitat use by cheetahs using ecological niche factor analysis. Journal of Zoology 277: 141-148.

Purchase, G. 2007a. Mozambique: preliminary assessment of the status and distribution of cheetah. Cat News Special Issue 3: 37-39.

Purchase, G. 2007b. Status and distribution of cheetahs in Zambia: a preliminary assessment. Cat News Special Issue 3: 40-42.

Purchase, G. and Purchase, D. 2007. The Status of the cheetah in Malawi. Cat News 3: 3.

Purchase, G.K. 1998. The Matusadona Cheetah Project: Lessons from a wild-to-wild translocation. Proceedings of a Symposium on Cheetahs as Game Ranch Animals: 89.

Purchase, G.K. and du Toit, J.T. 2000. The use of space and prey by cheetahs in Matusadona National Park, Zimbabwe. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 30: 139-144.

Purchase, G., Marker, L., Marnewick, K., Klein, R. and Williams, S. 2007. Regional assessment of the status, distribution and conservation needs of the cheetah in southern Africa. Cat News 3: 44-46.

Purchase, G., Vhurumuku, G. and Purchase, D. 2006. A wild-to-wild translocatoin of cheetahs from private farmland to a protected area in Zimbabwe (1994-1995). Cat News 44: 4-7.

Roe, D., Leader-Williams, N. and Dalal-Clayton, B. 1997. Take only photographs, leave only footprints: the environmental impacts of wildlife tourism. IIED Wildlife and Development Series No. 10. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London.

Rostro-Garcia, S., Kamler, J.F. and Hunter, L.T.B. 2015. To Kill, Stay or Flee: The Effects of Lions and Landscape Factors on Habitat and Kill Site Selection of Cheetahs in South Africa. PLoS One 10.

Sharp, N.C.C. 1997. Timed running speed of a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Journal of Zoology (London) 241: 493-494.

Smith, A. 1835. An epitome of African Zoology; or, a concise description of the objects of the animal kingdom inhabiting Africa, its islands and seas. South African Quarterly Journal 2.

Thorn, M., Green, M., Scott, D. and Marnewick, K. 2013. Characteristics and determinants of human-carnivore conflict in South African farmland. Biodiversity Conservation 22: 1715-1730.

Turnbull, P.C.B., Tindall, B.W., Coetzee, J.D., Conradie, C.M., Bull, R.L., Lindeque, P.M. and Huebschle, O.J.B. 2004. Vaccine-induced protection against anthrax in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Vaccine 22: 3340-3347.

Von Schreber, J.C.D. 1775 1777. Die Sñugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen/Fortgestzt von D.A. Goldfuss. pp. 281-590. Leipzig.

Williams, S. 2007. Status of the cheetah in Zimbabwe. Cat News Special Issue 3: 32-36.

Wilson, A.M., Lowe, J.C., Roskilly, K., Hudson, P.E., Golabek, K.A. and McNutt, J.W. 2013a. Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs. Nature 498: 185-189.

Wilson, J.W., Mills, M.G.L., Wilson, R.P., Peters, G., Mills, M.E.J., Speakman, J.R., Durant, S.M., Bennett, N.C., Marks, N.J. and Scantlebury, M. 2013b. Cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus, balance turn capacity with pace when chasing prey. Biological letters 9(5).

Wozencraft, W.C. 1993. Order Carnivora. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Second Edition, pp. 279-344. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Young, T.P. and Evans, M.R. 1993. Alpine vertebrates of Mount Kenya, with particular notes on the rock hyrax. Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society and National Museum 82(202): 55-79.

Citation: Durant, S., Mitchell, N., Ipavec, A. & Groom, R. 2015. Acinonyx jubatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T219A50649567. . Downloaded on 06 May 2016.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided