Stenoderma rufum 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Chiroptera Phyllostomidae

Scientific Name: Stenoderma rufum
Species Authority: Desmarest, 1820
Common Name(s):
English Red Fruit Bat

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2008-07-01
Assessor(s): Rodriguez, A. & Dávalos, L.
Reviewer(s): Medellín, R. & Schipper, J.
This species is listed as Vulnerable in light of an ongoing population reduction and small geographic range. The species extent of occurrence if <20,000 km², it occurs in five locations and is declining due to habitat less.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known from Puerto Rico (main island and Vieques), and US Virgin Islands (St. Thomas, St. John, St. Croix) (Simmons 2005).
Countries occurrence:
Puerto Rico; Virgin Islands, U.S.
Number of Locations:5
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is rare in the US Virgin Islands (no specimens taken in the last 30 years) (Gannon et al. 2005). In Puerto Rico it is uncommon; apparently it is most common in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (Gannon et al. 2005).
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The habitat in which this species occurs often is dry arborescent vegetation (Genoways and Baker 1972). This species is poorly known. Only the population in the Luquillo Mountains has been studied extensively, and almost all knowledge of its natural history comes from animals living there. It is primarily a frugivore; the most commonly eaten fruits are from the trumpet tree, bullet-wood, and sierra palm, and there is not evidence that it eats figs. It is solitary and roost among the leaves of the forest canopy. This bat frequently changes its roosting location, and sites are seldom occupied more than once. Home range is small, about 2.5 hectares on average. Pregnant females have been captured on Puerto Rico in January, March, June, July and August, and lactating bats are known from March, May, June, and July (Gannon et al. 2005).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by human disturbance and hurricanes.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: S. rufum is found in protected areas across its range.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.4. Storms & flooding
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions

Bibliography [top]

Gannon, M.R., Kurta, A., Rodriguez-Duran, A. and Willig, M.R. 2005. Bats of Puerto Rico. Texas Tech University Press.

Genoways, H.H. and Baker, R.J. 1972. Stenoderma rufum. Mammalian Species 18: 1-4.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 312-529. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Citation: Rodriguez, A. & Dávalos, L. 2011. Stenoderma rufum. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T20743A9228671. . Downloaded on 26 June 2016.
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