Arctocephalus tropicalis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Bibliography [top]

Aguiar-Dos Santos, R. and Haimovici, M. 2001. Cephalopods in the diet of marine mammals stranded or incidentally caught along southeastern and southern Brazil (21- 34º S). Fisheries Research 52: 99-112.

Bailleul, F., Luque, S., Dubroca, L., Arnould, J.P.Y. and Guinet, C. 2005. Differences in foraging strategy and maternal behaviour between two sympatric fur seal species at the Crozet Islands. Marine Ecology Progress Series 293: 273-282.

Bastida, R., Loureiro, J., Quse, V., Bernadelli, A., Rodriguez, D. and Costa, E. 1999. Tuberculosis in a wild subantarctic fur seal from Argentina. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 35: 796-798.

Beauplet, G., Dubroca, L., Guinet, C., Cherel, Y., Dabin, W., Gagne, C. and Hindell, M. 2004. Foraging ecology of Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis) breeding on Amsterdam Island: seasonal changes in relation to maternal characteristics and pup growth. Marine Ecology Progress Series 273: 211-225.

Berta, A. and Churchill, M. 2012. Pinniped taxonomy: review of currently recognized species and subspecies, and evidence used for their description. Mammal Review 42: 207-234.

Bester, M. N. 1981. Seasonal changes in the population composition of the fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis at Gough Island. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 11: 49-55.

Bester, M. N. 1982. Distribution, habitat selection and colony types of the Amsterdam Island fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis at Gough Island. Journal of Zoology (London) 196: 217-231.

Bester, M.N. 1989. 1987. The Subantarctic fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis at Gough Island (Tristan da Cunha Group). In: J.P. Croxall and R.L. Gentry (eds), Status, Biology and Ecology of Fur Seals; Proceedings of an International Symposium and Workshop, Cambridge, England, 23-27 April 1984. NOAA Technical Report NMFS. 51:57-60.

Bester, M. N. 1989. Movements of southern elephant seals and subantarctic fur seals in relation to Marion Island. Marine Mammal Science 5: 257-265.

Bester, M. N. 1995. Reproduction in the female subantarctic fur seal, Artocephalus tropicalis. Marine Mammal Science 11(3): 362-375.

Bester, M.N. and Laycock P.A. 1985. Cephalopod prey of the Sub-Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis, at Gough Island. In: W.R. Siegfried, P.R.Condy, R.M. Laws (ed.), Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs, pp. 551-554. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Bester, M. N., Ryan, P. G. and Dyer, B. M. 2003. Population numbers of fur seals at Prince Edward Island, Southern Ocean. African Journal of Marine Science 25: 549-554.

Bester, M.N., Ryan, P.G. and Visagie, J. 2009. Summer survey of fur seals at Prince Edward Island, southern Indian Ocean. African Journal of Marine Science 31: 451-455.

Bester, M. N., Wilson, J. W., Burle, M.-H. and Hofmeyr, G. J. G. 2006. Population trend of Subantarctic fur seals at Gough Island. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 36: 191-194.

Cherel, Y., Hobson, K.A., Guinet, C. and Vanpé, C. 2007. Stable isotopes document seasonal changes in trophic niches and winter foraging individual specialization in diving predators from the Southern Ocean. Journal of Animal Ecology 76: 826-836.

Chown, S. L., Gremmen, N. J. M. and Gaston, K. J. 1998. Ecological biogeography of the Southern Ocean Islands: species-area relationships, human impacts, and conservation. American Naturalist 152: 562-575.

Committee on Taxonomy. 2011. List of marine mammal species and subspecies. Society for Marine Mammalogy. Available at: (Accessed: 10 January 2012).

Committee on Taxonomy. 2013. List of marine mammal species and subspecies. Updated 3 December 2013. Available at: (Accessed: 3 July 2014).

David, J. H. M. and Salmon, L. 2003. Records of the subantarctic fur seal from Rodrigues and Mauritius, Indian Ocean. African Journal of Marine Sciences 25: 403-405.

David, J. H. M., Mercer, J. and Hunter, K. 1993. A vagrant subantarctic fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis found in the Comores. South African Journal of Zoology 28: 61-62.

de Bruyn, P.J.N., Tosh, C.A., Oosthuizen, W.C., Bester, M.N. and Arnould, J.P.Y. 2009. Bathymetry and frontal systems interactions influence seasonal foraging movements of lactating subantarctic fur seals from Marion Island. Marine Ecology Progress Series 394: 263-276.

Gales, N. J., Coughran, D. and Queale, L. F. 1992. Records of Subantarctic fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis in Australia. Australian Mammalogy 15: 135-138.

Garrigue, C. and Ross, G. 1996. A record of the subantarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis, from Madagascar, Indian Ocean. Marine Mammal Science 125: 624-626.

Georges, J-Y. and Guinet, C. 2000. Maternal care in Subantarctic fur seals on Amsterdam Island. Ecology 81(2): 295-308.

Georges, J.-Y., Tremblay, Y. and Guinet, C. 2000. Seasonal diving behaviour in lactating subantarctic fur seals on Amsterdam Island. Polar Biology 23: 59-69.

Goldsworthy, S. D. 1999. Maternal attendance behaviour of sympatrically breeding Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus spp., at Macquarie Island. Polar Biology 21: 316-325.

Goldsworthy, S. D. and Shaughnessy, P. D. 1989. Subantarctic fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis at Heard Island. Polar Biology 9: 337-339.

Goldsworthy, S. D., Hindell, M. A., and Crowley, H. M. 1997. Diet and diving behaviour of sympatric fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis, at Macquarie Island. In: M. A. Hindell and C. Kemper (eds), Marine mammal research in Australia and New Zealand, pp. 151-163. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney.

Goldsworthy, S. D., McKenzie, J., Page, B., Lancaster, M., and Bool, N. 2008. Population status and trends in the abundance of the fur seals at Macquarie Island. Report to the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. SARDI Research Report Series No. 308. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide.

Goldsworthy, S. D., McKenzie, J., Page, B., Lancaster, M. L., Shaughnessy, P. D., Wynen, L. P., Robinson, S. A., Peters, K. J., Baylis, A. M. M., and McIntosh, R. R. 2009. Fur seals at Macquarie Island: post-sealing colonisation, trends in abundance and hybridisation of three species. Polar Biology 32: 1473–1486.

Guinet, C., Jouventin, P. and. Georges, J.-Y. 1994. Long term population changes of fur seals Arctocephalus gazella and Arctocephalus tropicalis on subantarctic (Crozet) and subtropical (St. Paul and Amsterdam) Islands and their possible relationship to El Nino Southern Oscillation. Antarctic Science 6(4): 473-478.

Hanchet, S., Horn, P. and Stevenson, M. 2003. Fishing in the ice: is it sustainable? Water & Atmosphere 11: 24–25.

Hofmeyr, G.J.G. and Amir, O.A. 2010. Vagrant Subantarctic fur seal on the coast of Tanzania. African Zoology 45: 144-146.

Hofmeyr, G.J.G. and Bester M.N. 2008. Subantarctic Islands. In: M. Lück (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Tourism and Recreation in Marine Environments, pp. 456-457. CABI, Wallingford, UK.

Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Bester, M.N., Kirkman, S.P., Lydersen, C. and Kovacs, K.M. 2006b. Entanglement of Antarctic fur seals at Bouvetøya, Southern Ocean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52: 1077-1080.

Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Bester, M.N., Makhado, A.B. and Pistorius, P.A. 2006a. Population changes in Subantarctic and Antarctic fur seals at Marion Island. Polar Biology 17: 150-158.

Hofmeyr, G. J. G., De Maine, M., Bester, M. N., Kirkman, S. P., Pistorius, P. A. and Makhado, A. B. 2002. Entanglement of pinnipeds at Marion Island, Southern Ocean, 1991-2001. Australian Mammalogy 24: 141-146.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Kerley, G. I. H. 1983. Comparison of seasonal haulout patterns of fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis and A. gazella on Subantarctic Marion Island. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 13: 71-77.

Kerley, G.I.H. 1987. Arctocephalus tropicalis on the Prince Edward Islands. In: J.P. Croxall and R.L. Gentry (eds), Status, Biology and Ecology of Fur Seals; Proceedings of an International Symposium and Workshop, Cambridge, England, 23-27 April 1984. NOAA Technical Report NMFS. 51:61-64..

Kernaléguen, L., Cazelles, B., Arnould, J.P.Y., Richard, P., Guinet, C., Cherel, Y. 2012. Long-term species, sexual and individual variations in foraging strategies of fur seals revealed by stable isotopes in whiskers. PLoS One 7: e32916.

Kingston, J.J. and Gwilliam, J. 2007. Hybridization between two sympatrically breeding species of fur seal at Iles Crozet revealed by genetic analysis. Conservation Genetics 8: 1133-1145.

Kirkman, S.P., Bester, M.N., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Pistorius, P.A. and Makhado, A.B. 2002. Pup growth and maternal attendance patterns in Subantarctic fur seals. African Zoology 37: 13-19.

Kirkwood, R., Boren, L., Shaughnessy, P.D., Szteren, D., Mawson, P., Hückstädt, L., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Oosthuizen, H., Campagna, C. and Berris, M. 2003. Pinniped-focused tourism in the Southern Hemisphere: a review of the industry. In: N. Gales, M. Hindell and R. Kirkwood (eds), Marine mammals and humans: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, pp. 257-276. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.

Klages, N. T. W. and Bester, M. N. 1998. Fish prey of fur seals Arctocephalus spp. at subantarctic Marion Island. Marine biology 131: 559-566.

Kovacs, K.M., Aguilar, A., Aurioles, D., Burkanov, V., Campagna, C., Gales, N.J., Gelatt, T., Goldsworthy, S.D., Goodman, S.J., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Härkönen, T., Lowry, L., Lydersen, L., Schipper, J., Sipilä, T., Southwell, C., Thompson, D. and Trillmich, F. 2012. Global threats to pinnipeds. Marine Mammal Science 28: 414-436.

Lancaster, M.L., Gemmell, N.J., Negro, S., Goldsworthy, S. and Sunnucks, P. 2006. Ménage à trois on Macquarie Island: hybridization among three species of fur seal (Arctocephalus spp.) following historical population extinction. Molecular Ecology 15: 3681-3692.

Lancaster, M. L., Goldsworthy, S. D., and Sunnucks, P. 2010. Two behavioural traits promote fine-scale species segregation and moderate hybridisation in a recovering sympatric fur seal population. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2010 10: 143.

Lavigne D.M. and Schmitz, O.J. 1990. Global warming and increasing population densities: a prescription for seal plagues. Marine Pollution Bulletin 21: 280-284.

Laws, R. M. 1993. Identification of species. In: R. M. Laws (ed.), Antarctic seals, pp. 1-28. Cambridge University Press.

Learmonth, J.A., Macleod, C.D., Santos, M.B., Pierce, G.J., Crick, H.Q.P. and Robinson, R.A. 2006. Potential effects of climate change on marine mammals. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 44: 431-464.

McBride, M.M., Dalpadado, P., Drinkwater, K.F., Godø, O.R., Hobday, A.J., Hollowed, A.B., Kristiansen, T., Murphy, E.J., Ressler, P.H., Subbey, S., Hofmann, E.E. and Loeng, H. 2014. Krill, climate, and contrasting future scenarios for Arctic and Antarctic fisheries. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71: 1934-1955.

McDonald, B.I., Goebel, M.E., Crocker, D.E. and Costa, D.P. 2012. Biological and environmental drivers of energy allocation in a dependent mammal, the Antarctic fur seal pup. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85: 134-147.

Nyakatura, K. and Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. 2012. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates. BMC Biology 10: 12.

Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.

Page, B., Welling, A., Chambellant, M., Goldsworthy, S.D., Dorr, T. and Van Veen, R.Page, B., Welling, A., Chambellant, M., Goldsworthy, S.D., Dorr, T. and Van Veen, R. 2003. Population status and breeding season chronology of Heard Island fur seals. Polar Biology 26: 219-224.

Paulian, P. 1964. Contribution à l’étude de l’oterie de l’Ile Amsterdam. Mammalia 28: 3-146.

Payne, M. R. 1979. Fur seals Arctocephalus tropicalis and A. gazella crossing the Antarctic Convergence at South Georgia. Mammalia 43: 93-98.

PEIMC. 1996. Prince Edward Islands Management Plan. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria, South Africa.

PEIMP. 2010. Prince Edward Islands Management Plan. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria, South Africa.

Reijnders, P., Brasseur, S., van der Toorn, J., van der Wolf, P., Boyd, I., Harwood, J., Lavigne, D. and Lowry, L. 1993. Seals, fur seals, sea lions, and walrus. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN Seal Specialist Group.

Repenning, C.A., Peterson, R.S. and Hubbs, C.L. 1971. Contributions to the systematics of the southern fur seals, with particular reference to the Juan Fernández and Guadalupe species. In: W.H. Burt (ed.), Antarctic Pinnipedia, pp. 1-34. Antarctic Research Series 18, American Geophysical Union, New York, USA.

Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas.

Robinson, S. A., Goldsworthy, S. G., Van den Hoff, J. and Hindell, M. A. 2002. The foraging ecology of two sympatric fur seal species, Arctocephalus gazella and Arctocephalus tropicalis, at Macquarie Island during the austral summer. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 1071-1082.

Robinson. S., Wynen L. and Goldsworthy S. 1999. Predation by a Hooker’s sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) on a small population of fur seals (Arctocephalus spp.) at Macquarie Island. Marine Mammal Science 15: 888-893.

Roux, J.-P. 1987. Subantarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis, in French subantarctic territories. In: J.P. Croxall and R.L. Gentry (eds), Status, Biology and Ecology of Fur Seals. Proceedings of an International Symposium and Workshop, Cambridge, England, 23-27 April 1984. NOAA Technical report NMFS 51: 79-82.

SCAR-EGS. 2008. Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research – Expert Group on Seals Report. Available at: (Accessed: 5 November 2014).

Shaughnessy, P. D. and Burton, H. R. 1986. Fur seals Arctocephalus spp. At Mawson Station, Antarctica, and in the Southern Ocean. Polar Records 23: 79-81.

Shaughnessy, P. D. and Ross, G. J. B. 1980. Records of the subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) from South Africa with notes on its biology and some observations of captive animals. Annals of the South African Museum 242: 71-89.

Shaughnessy P.D., Kemper, C.M., Stemmer, D. and McKenzie, J. 2014. Records of vagrant fur seals (family Otariidae) in South Australia. Australian Mammalogy 36: 154-168.

Shirihai, H. 2002. A complete guide to Antarctic wildlife. Alula Press.

Taylor, R. H. 1990. Records of subantarctic fur seals in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 24: 499-502.

Torres, D. and Aguayo, A. 1984. Presence of Arctocephalus tropicalis (Gray 1872) at the Juan Fernandez Archipelago, Chile. Acta Zoologica 172: 130-134.

Wege, M., Oosthuizen, W.C., de Bruyn, P.J.N., Reisinger, R.R. and Bester, M.N. in prep. Population changes of sympatric Subantarctic and Antarctic fur seals at subantarctic Marion Isl.

Wynen, L. P., Goldsworthy, S. D., Guinet, C., Bester, M. N., Boyd, I. L., Gjertz, I., Hofmeyr, G. J. G., White, R. W. G. and Slade, R. W. 2000. Post sealing genetic variation and population structure of two species of fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis). Molecular Ecology 9: 299-314.

Zanre, R. and Bester, M.N. 2011. Vagrant Subantarctic fur seal in the Mayumba National Park, Gabon. African Zoology 46: 185-187.

Citation: Hofmeyr, G.J.G. 2015. Arctocephalus tropicalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T2062A45224547. . Downloaded on 28 May 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided