Arctocephalus pusillus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Bibliography [top]

Algers, B., Blokhuis, H.J., Broom, D.M., Costa, P., Domingo, M., Greiner, M., Guemene, D., Hartung, J., Koenen, F., Muller-Graf, C., Morton, D.B., Osterhaus, A., Pfeiffer, D.U., Roberts, R., Sanaa, M., Salman, M., Sharp, J.M., Vannier, P., Wierup, M. and Wooldridge, M. 2007. Scientific opinion of the panel on animal health and welfare on a request from the Commission on the animal welfare aspects of the killing and skinning of seals. The European Food Safety Authority Journal 610: 1-123.

Arnould, J.P.Y. and Hindell, M.A. 2001. Dive behaviour, foraging locations, and maternal-attendance patterns of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 35-48.

Arnould, J.P.Y. and Kirkwood, R. 2008. Habitat selection in a benthic diver: the foraging areas of female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 17: S53-S67.

Barange, M., Hampton, I. and Roel, B.A. 1999. Trends in the abundance and distribution of anchovy and sardine on the South African continental shelf in the 1990s, deduced from acoustic surveys. South African Journal of Marine Science 21: 367-391.

Berta, A. and Churchill, M. 2011. Pinniped taxonomy: review of currently recognized species and subspecies, and evidence used for their description. Mammal Review 42: 207-234.

Bonner, W. N. 1978. Man's impact on seals. Mammal Review 8: 3-13.

Butterworth, D.S., Punt, A.E. and Wickens, P.A. 1995. The effects of future consumption by the Cape fur seal on catches and catch rates of the Cape hakes. 3. Modelling the dynamics of the Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus. South African Journal of Marine Science 16: 161-183.

Campbell, R., Knowles, T. and O’Connor, S. 2011. A report for Humane Society International, World Society for the Protection of Animals, Bont Voor Dieren (NL) and Respect for Animals (UK), prepared by Economists at Large.

David, J. and Wickens, P. 2003. Management of Cape fur seals and fisheries in South Africa. In: N.J. Gales, M.A. Hindell and R. Kirkwood (eds), Marine mammals: fisheries, tourism and management issues, pp. 116-135. CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia.

David, J.H.M. 1987a. South African fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus. In: J. P. Croxall and R. L. Gentry (eds), Status, biology, and ecology of fur seals, pp. 73-77. NOAA Techn. Rep. NMFS 51.

David, J.H.M. 1987b. Diet of the South African (Cape) fur seal (1974-1 985) and an assessment of competition with fisheries in southern Africa. South African Journal of Marine Science 5: 693-713.

David, J.H.M. and Rand, R.W. 1986. Attendance behaviour of South African fur seals. In: R.L. Gentry and G.L. Kooyman (eds), Fur seals: maternal strategies on land and at sea, pp. 126-141. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Deagle, B.E., Kirkwood, R. and Jarman, S.N. 2009. Evaluating trophic links by pyrosequencing prey DNA in faeces: a population level dietary study on Australian fur seals. Molecular Ecology 18: 2022-2038.

de Bruyn, P.J.N., Bester, M.N., Mecenero, S., Kirkman, S.P., Roux, J.-P. and Klages, N.T.W. 2003. Temporal variation of cephalopods in the diet of Cape fur seals in Namibia. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 33: 85-96.

Deméré, T.A., Berta, A. and Adam, P.J. 2003. Pinnipedimorph evolutionary biogeography. Bulletin of the American Museum Natural History 279: 32-76.

De Villiers, D. and Roux, J.-P. 1992. Mortality of newborn pups of the South African fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus in Namibia. South African Journal of Marine Science 12: 881-889.

Gamel, C.M., Davis, R.W., David, J.H.M. and Meÿer M.A. 2005. Reproductive energetics and females attendance patterns of Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) during early lactation. American Midland Naturalist 153: 152-170.

Gammelsrød, T., Bartholomae, C.H., Boyer, D.C., Filipe, V.L.L. and O’Toole, M.J. 1998. Intrusion of warm surface water along the Angolan-Namibian coast in February-March 1995: The 1995 Benguela N. Journal of Marine Science 19: 41-56.

Gerber, L.R. and Hilborn, R. 2001. Catastrophic events and recovery from low densities in populations of otariids: implications for risk of extinction. Mammal Review 31(2): 131-150.

Goldsworthy, S.D., Bulman, C., He, X., Larcombe, J. and Littnan, C.L. 2003. Trophic interactions between marine mammals and Australian fisheries: an ecosystem approach. Marine mammals: fisheries, tourism and management issues, pp. 62-99. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Goldsworthy, S.D., Pemberton, D. and Warneke, R.M. 1997. Field identification of Australian and New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus spp.). In: M.A. Hindell and C. Kemper (eds), Marine Mammal Research in Australia and New Zealand, pp. 63-71. Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Hamer, D.J. and Goldsworthy, S.D. 2006. Seal–fishery operational interactions: Identifying the environmental and operational aspects of a trawl fishery that contribute to by-catch and mortality of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Biological Conservation 130: 517-529.

Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Du Toit, M. and Kirkman, S.P. 2011. Early post-release survival of stranded Cape fur seal pups at Black Rocks, Algoa Bay. African Journal of Marine Science 33: 453-461.

Hume, F., Hindell, M.A., Pemberton, D. and Gales, R. 2004. Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of a high trophic level predator, the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Marine Biology 144: 407-415.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Japp, D.W., Purves, M.G. and Wilkinson, S. 2012. Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem: State of the Stocks Review. Report No. 2 (2012). Benguela Current Commission. Capricorn Fisheries Monitoring, Cape Town, South Africa.

Kerley, G.I.H. 1983. Record for the Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus for subantarctic Marion Island. South African Journal of Zoology 18: 139-140.

Kirkman, S.P. 2006. Warfare to welfare: southern Africa’s dynamic seal-human interface. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Cape Town, South Africa.

Kirkman, S.P., Oosthuizen, W.H., Meyer, M.A., Kotze, P.G.H , Roux, J.-P. and Underhill, L.G. 2007. Making sense of censuses and dealing with missing data: trends in pup counts of Cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus for the period 1972-2004. South African Journal of Marine Science 29: 161-176.

Kirkman, S.P., Yemane, D., Oosthuizen, W.H., Meÿer, M.A., Kotze, P.G.H., Skrypzeck, H., Vaz Velho, F. and Underhill, L.G. 2013. Spatio-temporal shifts of the dynamic Cape fur seal population in southern Africa, based on aerial censuses (1972-2009). Marine Mammal Science 29: 497-524.

Kirkwood, R. and Arnould, J.P.Y. 2011. Foraging trip strategies and habitat use during late pup rearing by lactating Australian fur seals. Australian Journal of Zoology 59(4): 216-226.

Kirkwood, R. and Goldsworthy, S.D. 2013. Fur Seals and Sea Lions. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia.

Kirkwood, R., Boren, L., Shaughnessy, P.D., Szteren, D., Mawson, P., Hückstädt, L., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Oosthuizen, H., Campagna, C. and Berris, M. 2003. Pinniped-focused tourism in the Southern Hemisphere: a review of the industry. In: N. Gales, M. Hindell and R. Kirkwood (eds), Marine mammals and humans: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues, pp. 257-276. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia.

Kirkwood, R., Gales, R., Terauds, A., Arnould, J.P.Y., Pemberton, D., Shaughnessy, P.D., Mitchell, A.T. and Gibbens, J. 2005. Pup production and population trends of the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Marine Mammal Science 21(2): 260-282.

Kirkwood, R., Hume, F. and Hindell, M. 2008. Sea temperature variations mediate annual changes in the diet of Australian fur seals in Bass Strait. Marine Ecology Progress Series 369: 297-309.

Kirkwood, R., Pemberton, D., Gales, R., Hoskins, A.J., Mitchell, A., Shaughnessy, P.D. and Arnould, J.P.Y. 2010. Continued population recovery by Australian fur seals. Marine and Freshwater Research 61: 695-701.

Knuckey, I.A., Eayrs, S. and Bosschietter, B. 2002. Options for reducing incidental catch of seals on wet-boats in the SETF: a preliminary report. Final Report to the Australian Fisheries Management Authority. ARF Project R01/0887. Marine and Freshwater Resources Institute.

Kooyman, G.L. and Gentry, R.L. 1986. Diving behaviour of South African fur seals. In: R.L. Gentry and G.L. Kooyman (eds), Fur seals - maternal strategies on land and at sea, pp. 142-152. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Kovacs, K.M., Aguilar, A., Aurioles, D., Burkanov, V., Campagna, C., Gales, N.J., Gelatt, T., Goldsworthy, S.D., Goodman, S.J., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Härkönen, T., Lowry, L., Lydersen, L., Schipper, J., Sipilä, T., Southwell, C., Thompson, D. and Trillmich, F. 2012. Global threats to pinnipeds. Marine Mammal Science 28: 414-436.

Kuhn, B.F., Wiesel, I. and Skinner, J.D. 2008. Diet of brown hyaenas (Parahyaena brunnea) on the Namibian coast. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 63: 1-8.

Lancaster, M.L., Arnould, J.P.Y. and Kirkwood, R. 2010. Genetic status of an endemic marine mammal, the Australian fur seal, following historical harvesting. Animal Conservation 13: 247-255.

Lavigne D.M. and Schmitz, O.J. 1990. Global warming and increasing population densities: a prescription for seal plagues. Marine Pollution Bulletin 21: 280-284.

Lento, G.M., Haddon. M., Chambers, G.K. and Baker, C.S. 1997. Genetic variation of southern hemisphere fur seals (Arctocephalus spp.): Investigation of population structure and species identity. Journal of Heredity 88(3): 202-208.

Littnan, C.L., Arnould, J., P.Y. and Harcourt, R.G. 2007. Effect of proximity to the shelf edge on the diet of female Australian fur seals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 338: 257-267.

Lyle, J.M. and Willcox, S.T. 2008. Dolphin and seal interactions with mid-water trawling in the Small Pelagic Fishery, including an assessment of bycatch mitigation strategies. Final Report Project R05/0996. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute and Australian Fisheries Management Authority.

Lynch, M., Duignan, P.J., Taylor, T., Nielsen, O., Kirkwood, R., Gibbens, J. and Arnould, J.P.Y. 2011a. Epidemiology of Brucella infection in Australian fur seals. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47: 352-363.

Lynch, M., Kirkwood, R., Mitchell, A. and Arnould, J.P.Y. 2011b. Prevalence and significance of an alopecia syndrome in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Journal of Mammalogy 92: 342-351.

Makhado, A.B., Crawford, R.J.M. and Underhill, L.G. 2006. Impact of predation by cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus on Cape gannets Morus capensis at Malgas Island, Western Cape, South Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 28(3-4): 681-687.

Martin, A.R., Hammerschlag, N., Collier, R.S. and Fallows, C. 2005. Predatory behaviour of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) at Seal Island, South Africa. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 85: 1121-1135.

Matthee, C.A., Fourie, F., Oosthuizen, W.H., Meÿer, M.A. and Tolley, K.A. 2006. Mitochondrial DNA sequence data of the Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) suggest that population numbers may be affected by climatic shifts. Marine Biology 148: 899-905.

McIntosh, R.R., Sutherland, D., Dann, P., Kirkwood, R., Thalman, S., Alderman, R., Arnould, J.P.Y., Mitchell, A., Kirkman, S., Salton, M. and Slip, D. 2014. Pup production of Australian and New Zealand fur seals between 2007 and 2014. Report by the Phillip Island Nature Park.

Mecenero, S., Kirkman, S.P. and Roux, J.-P. 2006. A dynamic fish consumption model for lactating Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus based on scat analyses. Journal of Marine Science 63: 1551–1566.

MLRA. 2007. Policy on the Management of Seals, Seabirds and Shorebirds, 2007. Marine Living Resources Act, 1998. Government Gazette no. 30534.

Moloney, C.L., Fennessey, S.T., Gibbons, M.J., Roychoudhury, A., Shillington, F.A. von der Heyden, B.P. and Watermeyer, K. 2013. Reviewing evidence of marine ecosystem change off South Africa. African Journal of Marine Science 35(3): 427-448.

National Seal Strategy Group and Stewardson, C. 2007. National Strategy to Address Interactions between Humans and Seals: Fisheries, Aquaculture and Tourism. Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Canberra, Australia.

Nyakatura, K. and Bininda-Emonds, O.R.P. 2012. Updating the evolutionary history of Carnivora (Mammalia): a new species-level supertree complete with divergence time estimates. BMC Biology 10: 12.

Oosthuizen, W.H. 1991. General movements of South African (Cape) fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus from analysis of recoveries of tagged animals. South African Journal of Marine Science 11: 21-29.

Oosthuizen, W.H., Meyer, M.A., David, J.H.M., Summers, N.M., Kotze, P.G.H., Swanson, S.W. and Shaughnessy, P.D. 1997. Variation in jackal numbers at the Van ReenenBay seal colony with comment on the likely importance of jackals as predators. African Journal of Wildlife Research 27: 26-29.

Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.

Page, B., McKenzie, J. and Goldsworthy, S.D. 2005a. Dietary resource partitioning among sympatric New Zealand and Australian fur seals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 293: 283-302.

Pemberton, D. and Kirkwood, R. J. 1994. Pup production and distribution of the Australian fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, in Tasmania. Wildlife Research 21: 341–352.

Pemberton, D. and Shaughnessy, P.D. 1993. Interaction between seals and marine fish-farms in Tasmania and management of the problem. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 3: 149-158.

Punt, A.E. and Butterworth, D.S. 1995. The effects of future consumption by the Cape fur seal on catches and catch rates of the Cape hakes. 4. Modelling the biological interaction between Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus and the Cape hakes Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus. South African Journal of Marine Science 16: 255-285.

Rand, R.W. 1955. Reproduction in the female Cape fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus (Schreber). Proceedings of the Zoological Society, London 124: 717-740.

Reijnders, P., Brasseur, S., van der Toorn, J., van der Wolf, P., Boyd, I., Harwood, J., Lavigne, D. and Lowry, L. 1993. Seals, fur seals, sea lions, and walrus. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN Seal Specialist Group.

Repenning, C.A., Peterson, R.S. and Hubbs, C.L. 1971. Contributions to the systematics of the southern fur seals, with particular reference to the Juan Fernández and Guadalupe species. In: W.H. Burt (ed.), Antarctic Pinnipedia, pp. 1-34. Antarctic Research Series 18, American Geophysical Union, New York, USA.

Rice, F.H. and Saayman, G.S. 1987. Distribution and behaviour of killer whales (Orcinus orca) off the coasts of southern Africa. Investigations on Cetacea 20: 231-250.

Robinson, S., Terauds, A., Gales, R. and Greenwood, M. 2008a. Mitigating fur seal interactions: relocation from Tasmanian aquaculture farms. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 18(7): 1180-1188.

Roux, J.-P. 1998. The impact of environmental variability on the seal population. Namibia Brief 20: 138-140.

Roux, J.P., van der Lingen, C.D., Gibbons, M.J., Moroff, N.E., Shannon, L.J., Smith, A.D. and Cury, P.M. 2013. Jellyfication of marine ecosystems as a likely consequence of overfishing small pelagic fishes: lessons from the Benguela. Bulletin of Marine Science 89: 249-284.

Roy, C., Van Der Lingen, C.D., Coetzee, J.C. and Lutjeharms, J.R.E. 2007. Abrupt environmental shift associated with changes in the distribution of Cape anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus spawners in the southern Benguela. African Journal of Marine Science 29: 309-319.

Shaughnessy P.D. 1979. Cape (South African) Fur Seal. Mammals in the Seas, Vol. II: Pinniped species summaries and report on sirenians, pp. 37-40. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy.

Shaughnessy, P.D. 1980. Entanglement of Cape fur seals with man-made objects. Marine Pollution Bulletin 11: 332-336.

Shaughnessy, P.D. 1999. The action plan for Australian seals. Environment Australia., Canberra, Australia.

Shaughnessy, P.D., Goldsworthy, S.D. and Mackay, A.I. 2014. Status and trends in abundance of New Zealand fur seal populations in South Australia. SARDI Research Report Series No. 781. Adelaide, Australia.

Shaughnessy, P.D., McKenzie, J., Lancaster, M.L., Goldsworthy, S.D. and Dennis, T.E. 2010. Australian fur seals establish haulout sites and a breeding colony in South Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 58: 94-103.

Skinner, J.D., Van Aarde, R.J. and Goss, R.A. 1995. Space and resource use by brown hyenas Hyaena brunnea in the Namib Desert. Journal of Zoology, London 237: 123-131.

Stewardson, C.L. 2001. Biology and conservation of the Cape (South African) fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus (Pinnipedia: Otariidae) from the Eastern Cape Coast of South Africa. PhD thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.

Stewardson, C. L. 2007. National Assessment of Interactions between Humans and Seals: Fisheries, Aquaculture and Tourism. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra, Australia.

Thibault, M. 1999. Sighting of a South African fur seal on a beach in south-western Gabon. American Journal of Ecology 37: 119–120.

Tilzey, R.D.J., Goldsworthy, S., Cawthorn, M., Calvert, N., Hamer, D., Russell, S., Shaughnessy, P.D., Wize, B. and Stewardson, C. 2006. Assessment of seal-fishery interactions in the winter blue grenadier fishery off west Tasmania and the development of fishing practices and Seal Exclusion Devices to mitigate seal bycatch by factory trawlers. Final Report to the FRDC. Project no. 2001/008.

Tuck, G.N., Knuckey, I. and Klaer, N.L. 2013. Informing the review of the Commonwealth Policy on Fisheries Bycatch through assessing trends in bycatch of key Commonwealth fisheries. Final Report to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC), Project: 2012/046. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research.

Villiers, D. J., de and Roux, J.-P. 1992. Mortality of newborn pups of the South African fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus in Namibia. South African Journal of Marine Science 12: 881-889.

Warneke, R.M. 1995. Australian fur-seal Arctocephalus pusillus (Schreber, 1775). In: R. Strahan (ed.), The Mammals of Australia. Second Edition., pp. 680-682. Reed Books, Chatswood, UK.

Warneke, R.M. and Shaughnessy, P.D. 1985. Arctocephalus pusillus, the South African and Australian fur seal: taxonomy, evolution, biogeography and life history. In: J.K. Ling and M.M. Bryden. (eds), Studies of Sea Mammals in South Latitudes, pp. 53-77. South Australian Museum, Adelaide, Australia.

Wickens, P. A., David, J. H. M., Shelton, P. A. and Field, J. G. 1991. Trends in harvest and pup numbers of the South African fur seal: Implications for management. South African Journal of Marine Science 11: 307-326.

Wickens, P. A., Japp, D. W., Shelton, P. A., Kriel, F., Goosen, P. C., Rose, B., Augustyn, C. J., Bross, C. A. R., Penney, A. J. and Krohn, R. G. 1992. Seals and fisheries in South Africa - competition and conflict. In: A.I.L. Payne, K.H. Brink, K.H. Mann, and R. Hilborn (eds.). Benguela Trophic Functioning. South African Journal of Marine Science 12: 773-789.

Wickens, P. and York, A.E. 1997. Comparative population dynamics of fur seals. Marine Mammal Science 13(2): 241-292.

Wynen, L.P., Goldsworthy, S.D., Insley, S.J., Adams, M., Bickham, J.W., Francis, J., Gallo, J.P., Hoelzel, A.R., Majluf, P., White, R.W.G. and Slade, R. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships within the eared seals (Otariidae: Carnivora): Implications for the historical biogeography of the family. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 21(2): 270-284.

Yonezawa, T., Kohno, N. and Hasegawa, M. 2009. The monophyletic origin of sea lions and fur seals (Carnivora; Otariidae) in the Southern Hemisphere. Gene 441: 89-99.

Citation: Hofmeyr, G.J.G. 2015. Arctocephalus pusillus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T2060A45224212. . Downloaded on 20 May 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided