Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Gnetopsida Ephedrales Ephedraceae

Scientific Name: Ephedra milleri
Species Authority: Freitag & Maier-St.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-09-19
Assessor(s): Bell, A. & Bachman, S.
Reviewer(s): Hilton-Taylor, C. & Lutz, M.L.
Until recently this species was only known from the Dhofar region of Oman, but collections in the Fartak Mountains of Al Mahra confirm its presence in Yemen. It has not been frequently collected so may have a naturally restricted geographic range. As there are no perceived major threats a rating of Least Concern is given.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Endemic to the southern edge of the Arabian Peninsula in Oman and Yemen. Occurs from 600 m up to 1,200 m.
Countries occurrence:
Oman; Yemen (South Yemen)
Lower elevation limit (metres):600
Upper elevation limit (metres):1200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population size is not known, but it is reported as not common. Initially it was thought to be restricted to Dhofar (Freitag and Maier-Stolte 1992), but has recently also been reported from Al Mahrah, Yemen (Kilian et al .2002).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A shrub which occurs in semi-arid zones and shrubland on dry limestone slopes. Associated with Boswellia and Euphorbia and Acacia-Commiphora woodland.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The stems of most members of this genus contain the alkaloid ephedrine and are valuable in the treatment of asthma and many other complaints of the respiratory system (Plants for a Future 2010).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Under no present or perceived threat (S. Ghazanfar pers. comm. 2011). Overgrazing may be a problem in some areas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known occurrences reported from protected areas, although collections have been made close to the Jebel Samhan National Nature Reserve in Oman. There are no known collections for botanic gardens or for ex situ storage in seed/gene banks.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability: Suitable  
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓   National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Freitag, H. and Maier-Stolte, M. 1992. A new species and a new combination for the genus Ephedra from Arabia. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 49(1): 89-93.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

Kilian, N., Hein, P. and Ali Hubaishan, M. 2002. New and noteworthy records for the flora of Yemen, chiefly of Hadhramout and Al-Mahra. Willdenowia 32: 239-269.

Miller, A.G. and Cope, T.A. 1996. Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

Plants for a Future. 1996-2010. Plants For A Future, Earth, Plants, People. Available at:

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. 2009. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Available at:

Citation: Bell, A. & Bachman, S. 2011. Ephedra milleri. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T201669A9160690. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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