Trichopodus leerii 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Osphronemidae

Scientific Name: Trichopodus leerii
Species Authority: (Bleeker, 1851)
Common Name(s):
English Pearl guarami
Synonym(s):
Trichogaster leerii (Bleeker, 1852)
Trichopus leerii Bleeker, 1852
Taxonomic Source(s): Kottelat, M. 2013. The fishes of the inland waters of southeast Asia: a catalogue and core bibiography of the fishes known to occur in freshwaters, mangroves and estuaries. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 27: 1-663.
Taxonomic Notes:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2011-02-26
Assessor(s): Vidthayanon, C.
Reviewer(s): Kottelat, M. & Allen, D.
Justification:
The fish is popular in the aquarium trade, although most specimens in trade are thought be sourced from captive-bred sources. Populations in some parts of the species' range (especially in central Thailand, from where it may have been extirpated; C. Vidthayanon pers. comm. 2012) have declined in the past twenty years due to habitat loss and degradation as a result of peatland and wetland conversion and reclamation. Habitat management to conserve its habitat is urgently needed, and monitoring of the harvest for the ornamental trade is recommended. Levels of decline are expected to continue and may approach 30% across its range in the next 10-20 years, and the level of habitat loss is expected to continue. The species is assessed as Near Threatened as levels of population decline are suspected to nearly qualify the species as threatened under criteria A: population reduction.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is known from the eastern side of the Malay Peninsula (southern Thailand and West Malaysia), and from Indonesia (Sumatra and Kalimantan; Roberts 1989). The species has been recorded from central Thailand (the lower Chao Phraya drainage around Bangkok; Bleeker 1865, Hora 1923, Smith 1945), however there are no recent records of the species from this area, and populations in central Thailand may have been extirpated (C. Vidthayanon pers. comm. 2012).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Thailand
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Populations of the species have much declined in some parts of the species' range (central Thailand, and possibly the Malay Peninsula) due to habitat loss and degradation as a result of peatland and wetland conversion and reclamation. Levels of decline are expected to continue and may approach 30% across its range in the next 10-20 years, and the level of habitat loss is expected to continue.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Inhabits peat marshlands and swamps, and lowland flooded forests.
Systems:Freshwater
Generation Length (years):3-5
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is popular in the aquarium trade, although it is thought that a significant proportion of the stock in trade is from captive-bred sources as wild specimens are very sensitive to transport, and therefore expensive.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss as a result of peatland conversion and wetland reclamation are the main threats, especially in central Thailand and the Malay Peninsula. Overfishing for the aquarium trade is a secondary threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Habitat management is needed to conserve the species' habitat. Harvest monitoring for the ornamental trade is recommended.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:No
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.4. Abstraction of surface water (unknown use)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.3. Other ecosystem modifications
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Bleeker, P. 1865. Poissons inédits indo-achipélaques de l'ordre des Murènes. Ned. Tijdschr. Dierk 2: 33-37.

Hora, S.L. 1923. On a collection of fish from Siam. Journal of the Natural History Society of Siam 6(2): 143-184.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Roberts, T.R. 1989. The Freshwater Fishes of Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia). California Academy of Science, San Francisco.

Smith, H.M. 1945. The fresh-water fishes of Siam, or Thailand. United States Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.


Citation: Vidthayanon, C. 2012. Trichopodus leerii. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T187958A1839297. . Downloaded on 08 December 2016.
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