Paralabrax albomaculatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Serranidae

Scientific Name: Paralabrax albomaculatus
Species Authority: (Jenyns, 1840)
Common Name(s):
English Camotillo
Spanish Camotillo
Gracila albomaculata Jenyns, 1840
Serranus albomaculatus Jenyns, 1840

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2bd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-05-21
Assessor(s): Robertson, R., Allen, G., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Edgar, G., Rivera, F. & Merlen, G.
Reviewer(s): Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)
This species is endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Although it is present in the Galápagos Marine Protected Area, it is targeted by commercial fisheries. A 70% decline in population over the past 10 years (less than 3 generation lengths) is inferred based on a severe decrease in fisheries landings with continued effort between 1998 and 2001 in the Galápagos. It is listed as Endangered.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Galápagos Islands.
Countries occurrence:
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Pacific – southeast
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):75
Upper depth limit (metres):10
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is no population information available for this species. However, a substantial decline (approximately 70%) in population numbers occurred between 1998 and 2001, as inferred from landings of fishes in the Galápagos with no evidence of a decrease in fishing effort (Danulat and Edgar 2002).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This reef-associated species inhabits rocky reefs and nearby sand patches. Depth of occurrence varies within the archipelago according to temperature, with preference for cooler water (Reck 1983) but ranges between 10-75 m. The diet consists of mobile benthic crustaceans, octupus, squid, and cuttle fishes.

Although exact generation length is not known, age of first maturity is estimated to be between 1-2 years and longevity is estimated to be about 10-12 years based on Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Andrews et al. 2005), and therefore generation length is conservatively estimated to be 5 years.
Generation Length (years):5

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is targeted and commercially exploited by handline fishers in Galápagos.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the Eastern Tropical Pacific, severe localized fish species declines have occurred after strong ENSO events that result in shallow waters that are too warm and nutrient poor for extended periods of time (Grove 1985, Edgar et al. 2009). The frequency and duration of ENSO events in this region of the Eastern Tropical Pacific (e.g., the up-welling zone off the coast of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and associated offshore islands) appears to be increasing (Glynn and Ault 2000, Soto 2001, Chen et al. 2004). This deep water species is unlikely to be affected by oceanographic changes caused by ENSO/climate change events. However, juveniles of this cool water species have primarily been observed in relatively shallow water including near mangroves, where they may be affected by increased temperatures during severe El Niño events.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Although this species' entire range is in the Galápagos Marine Protected Area, it is still subject to active commercial fishing.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.3. Temperature extremes
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.2. Intentional use: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Andrews, A.H. Laman, E.A., Bennett, T., Jones, E. and Cailliet, G.M. 2005. Age and Growth of Spotted Sand Bass, Paralabrax maculatofasciatus, in Bahia de Los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico, with Age Validation using Otolith Edge Analysis. Bulletin, Southern California Academy of Sciences 104(1): 14-25.

Chen, D., Cane, M.A., Kaplan, A., Zebiak, S.E and Huang, D. 2004. Predictability of El Niño over the past 148 years. Nature 428: 733-736.

CMAR -Conservation International. 2006. Corredor Marino de Conservación del Pacifico Este Tropical. Documento Informativo. Secretaría Técnica Pro-Tempore del CMAR.

Danulat, E. and Edgar, G.J. 2002. Reserva Marina de Galápagos. Línea Base de la Biodiversidad.: 484.

Edgar, G.J., Banks, S.A., Brandt, M., Bustamante, R.H., Chiriboga, A., Earle, S.A., Garske, L.E., Glynn, P.W., Grove, J.S., Henderson, S., Hickman, C.P., Miller, K.A., Rivera, F. and Wellington, G.M. 2009. El Niño, grazers and fisheries interact to greatly elevate extinction risk for Galapagos marine species. Global Change Biology doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02117.x.

Froese, R., Palomares, M. and Pauly, D. 2002. Estimation of life history key facts of fishes. Available at:

Glynn, P.W. and Ault, J.S. 2000. A biogeographic analysis and review of the far eastern Pacific coral reef region. Coral Reefs 19: 1-23.

Grove, J.S. 1985. Influence of the 1982-1983 El Niño event upon the ichthyofauna of the Galápagos archipelago. Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands, Quito, Ecuador.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Reck, G.K. 1983. The coastal fisheries in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador: Description and consequences for management in the context of marine environmental protection and regional development. Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel.

Robertson, D.R. and Allen, G.R. 2006. Shore fishes of the tropical eastern Pacific: an information system. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panamá.

Roca, R., Earle, S., Shillinger, G., Mourra, V., Zumbrunn, S. and Mckenna, S. 2003. Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape: an oceanic and coastal conservation and sustainable development corridor.

Soto, C.G. 2001. The potential impacts of global climate change on marine protected areas. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11(3): 181-195.

Citation: Robertson, R., Allen, G., Dominici-Arosemena, A., Edgar, G., Rivera, F. & Merlen, G. 2010. Paralabrax albomaculatus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T183769A8173211. . Downloaded on 20 January 2017.
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