Propithecus diadema 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Indriidae

Scientific Name: Propithecus diadema
Species Authority: Bennett, 1832
Common Name(s):
English Diademed Sifaka
French Propithèque à diadème
Synonym(s):
Propithecus diadema ssp. diadema Bennett, 1832
Taxonomic Source(s): Mayor, M. I., Sommer, J. A., Houck, M. L., Zaonarivelo, J. R., Wright, P. C., Ingram, C., Engel, S. R. and Louis, E. E. 2004. Specific status of Propithecus spp. International Journal of Primatology 25: 875-900.
Taxonomic Notes:

In the forests of Tsinjoarivo in eastern central Madagascar, an unusual population of what appears to be P. diadema has been discovered. The animals are variably coloured, including all black individuals (several of which are known to have been born to parents with typical pelage), but preliminary genetic studies indicate that this population requires further study before subspecific status can be established (Mayor et al. 2004).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A3cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2012-07-11
Assessor(s): Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A.
Reviewer(s): Schwitzer, C. & Molur, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Chiozza, F. & Clark, F.
Justification:

A population reduction of ≥80% is suspected to be met in the future (over a three generation time period of 45 years). This is based on a continuing decline in area, extent and quality of habitat due to slash-and-burn agricultural practices and timber extraction as principal threats, planting of sugar cane fields and destructive utilisation of sifaka food trees in some areas, in addition to exploitation through unsustainable hunting pressure. Based on these premises, the species is listed as Critically Endangered.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found in eastern and northeastern Madagascar. Although the precise limits of its range are unknown this species is thought to be one of the most widely-distributed of the sifakas, occurring throughout the island’s eastern rainforests from the Mangoro and Onive rivers north to the Mananara River. Historically, its range extended farther north to just south of the Antainambalana River, but it has not been found in recent years during fairly extensive studies of that region (Mittermeier et al. 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Madagascar
Additional data:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Lower elevation limit (metres):200
Upper elevation limit (metres):1650
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:

This species is rare. It occurs only at very low densities wherever it is found: at Tsinjoarivo densities of 7 individuals/km2 were recorded in less-disturbed, continuous forest, with higher local densities in some smaller fragments (Irwin 2008a). Population figures are in decline due to habitat destruction and hunting.

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

It is found in the eastern rainforests, and persists in some smaller forest fragments (down to ~30 ha). The diet consists mainly of ripe fruits, seeds, flowers, and young leaves, their respective proportions varying according to seasonal abundance (Irwin 2008b). Females are sexually receptive for very few days (perhaps only one day) out of the year, sometime between November and January. A single young is born between May and July, after a gestation of 179 days. Individuals may live up to 20 years in the wild. This species is diurnal and arboreal. In one study, these animals spent 49·4% of their time resting, 37·8% feeding, 2·4% in social behaviour, 5·1% moving, and the remainder in other activities. This species has only twice been studied for a significant period of time (by Powzyk at Mantadia and Irwin at Tsinjoarivo). It lives in female-dominated, multi-male/multi -female groups of 2 to 8 individuals, consisting of 1–3 adult females and 1 or 2 adult males, and multiple females may breed within the same group. Exclusive territories of 20–80 ha are maintained by means of scent-marking, although there is little aggression over boundaries. Compared to the sympatric, similar -sized Indri indri, P. diadema spends more time actively patrolling and defending its territories. The mean daily path length of 987– 1629 m for P. diadema can be compared to 774 m for I. indri (Powzyk 1997). Predation by fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) may be an important threat to this species, especially in fragmented or degraded areas where other prey species may be reduced (Irwin et al. 2009). Males emigrate at age five, often to a neighbouring group; females may either emigrate or remain in their natal group (Mittermeier et al. 2010 and references therein)

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):15

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Hunting for its meat and fur has a very serious impact in many parts of its range.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Continued destruction of rain forest habitat in eastern Madagascar due to slash-and-burn agricultural practices and timber extraction is the principal threat to this sifaka’s survival, although hunting for food also can have a very serious impact on remaining populations, even within existing protected areas (Mittermeier et al. 2010). Furthermore, illegal rum production, necessitating the planting of sugar cane fields and destructive utilization of sifaka food trees, is a threat to populations in Tsinjoarivo (Irwin and Ravelomanantsoa 2004).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

This species is listed on Appendix I of CITES. This species occurs in three national parks (Mananara-Nord, Mantadia, and Zahamena), two strict nature reserves (Betampona and Zahamena), and three special reserves (Ambatovaky, Mangerivola, and Marotandrano) (Mittermeier et al. 2010). Additional populations have been identified in the Andriantantely Classified Forest, Tsinjoarivo Classified Forest, the Marokitay Forest Reserve, and in the unprotected forests of Anosibe an’ala, Anjozorobe, Didy, Iofa, Maromiza and Sandranantitra (Mittermeier et al. 2010). The Tsinjoarivo Classified Forest has already been recommended as a new protected area. As of 2012 this species was not represented in captivity.


Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Irwin MT. 2008a. Diademed sifaka (Propithecus diadema) ranging and habitat use in continuous and fragmented forest: Higher density but lower viability in fragments? . Biotropica 40(2): 231-240.

Irwin MT. 2008b. Feeding ecology of diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) in forest fragments and continuous forest. Int J Primatol 29(1): 95-115.

Irwin, M. T. and Ravelomanantsoa, H. V. 2004. Illegal rum production threatens health of lemur populations at Tsinjoarivo, eastern central Madagascar: brief report and request for information. Lemur News 9: 16–17.

Irwin MT, Raharison J-L, and Wright PC. 2009. Spatial and temporal variability in predation on rainforest primates: Do forest fragmentation and predation act synergistically? . Anim Conserv 12(3): 220-230.

IUCN. 2014. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Mayor, M. I., Sommer, J. A., Houck, M. L., Zaonarivelo, J. R., Wright, P. C., Ingram, C., Engel, S. R. and Louis, E. E. 2004. Specific status of Propithecus spp. International Journal of Primatology 25: 875-900.

Mittermeier, R.A., Louis Jr., E.E., Richardson, M., Schwitzer, C., Langrand, O., Rylands, A.B., Hawkins, F., Rajaobelina, S., Ratsimbazafy, J., Rasoloarison, R., Roos, C., Kappeler, P.M. and MacKinnon, J. 2010. Lemurs of Madagascar. 3rd edition. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.

Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. and Wilson D.E. 2013. Handbook of the Mammals of the World: Volume 3 Primates. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Powzyk JA. 1997. The socio-ecology of two sympatric indriids: Propithecus diadema diadema and Indri indri, a comparison of feeding strategies and their possible repercussions on species-specific behaviors . Durham, NC: Duke University.


Citation: Andriaholinirina, N., Baden, A., Blanco, M., Chikhi, L., Cooke, A., Davies, N., Dolch, R., Donati, G., Ganzhorn, J., Golden, C., Groeneveld, L.F., Irwin, M., Johnson, S., Kappeler, P., King, T., Lewis, R., Louis, E.E., Markolf, M., Mass, V., Mittermeier, R.A., Nichols, R., Patel, E., Rabarivola, C.J., Raharivololona, B., Rajaobelina, S., Rakotoarisoa, G., Rakotomanga, B., Rakotonanahary, J., Rakotondrainibe, H., Rakotondratsimba, G., Rakotondratsimba, M., Rakotonirina, L., Ralainasolo, F.B., Ralison, J., Ramahaleo, T., Ranaivoarisoa, J.F., Randrianahaleo, S.I., Randrianambinina, B., Randrianarimanana, L., Randrianasolo, H., Randriatahina, G., Rasamimananana, H., Rasolofoharivelo, T., Rasoloharijaona, S., Ratelolahy, F., Ratsimbazafy, J., Ratsimbazafy, N., Razafindraibe, H., Razafindramanana, J., Rowe, N., Salmona, J., Seiler, M., Volampeno, S., Wright, P., Youssouf, J., Zaonarivelo, J. & Zaramody, A. 2014. Propithecus diadema. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T18358A16116148. . Downloaded on 25 August 2016.
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