Excoecaria agallocha

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA MAGNOLIOPSIDA EUPHORBIALES EUPHORBIACEAE

Scientific Name: Excoecaria agallocha
Species Authority: L.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-03-07
Assessor(s): Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.
Reviewer(s): Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)
Justification:
This species is widespread and common. There are some localised threats and overall population decline from coastal development throughout its range. There has been an estimated 21% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. However, this back mangrove species is able to grow quickly and colonize disturbed areas. Mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of the range. There are overall range declines in many areas due to habitat loss or extraction, but not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. This species is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:In South Asia this species is found in Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Viet Nam. The species also occurs in the Maldives.

In Australasia it can be found in Northwest Australia, Northeast Australia, Southeast Australia, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Guam, New Caledonia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu.
Countries:
Native:
Australia; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Fiji; India; Indonesia; Japan; Malaysia; Maldives; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Myanmar; New Caledonia; Niue; Norfolk Island; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Tonga; Vanuatu; Viet Nam
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is reasonably abundant throughout its range and is a very widespread species. Although there is no species specific population information, it can be assumed that there are areas of population decline throughout its range due to coastal development.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a back mangrove species and often exploits open areas and is tolerant of distrurbed areas. It is a small to medium sized tree with extensive cable roots. It has multiple stems. It can be decidiuous in cooler/drier areas. It produces a latex (milky sap) that causes temporary blindness. Hibiscus tiliaceus is its main associate in China (Peng and Xin-men 1983).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is used for furniture and ornaments. In Papua New Guinea it is used for pain relief from fish stings. It is also used as a poison to catch fish.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Sea level rise is a major threat, especially to back mangroves that have no area in which to expand. Mangrove species with a habitat on the landward margin may be particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise if owing to coastal development their movement inland is blocked. Howevever, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/ fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce. Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 21% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).

All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones.

In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas.

Bibliography [top]

Duke, N. 2006. Australia's Mangroves. The authoritative guide to Australia's mangrove plants. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Duke, N.C., Ball, M.C. and Ellison, J.C. 1998. Factors influencing biodiversity and distributional gradients in mangroves. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 7: 27-47.

Ellison, J.C. 1995. Systematics and Distributions of Pacific Island Mangroves. In: J.E. Maragos, M.N.A. Peterson, L.G. Eldredge, J.E. Bardach and H.F. Takeuchi (eds), Marine and Coastal Biodiversity in the Tropical Island Pacific Region, pp. 59-74. East-West Center, Honolulu, USA.

Ellison, J.C. 2005. Holocene palynology and sea-level change in two estuaries in Southern Irian Jaya. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 220: 291-309.

FAO. 2007. The World's Mangroves 1980-2005. FAO Forestry Paper 153. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).

Lacerda, L.D. 2002. Mangrove Ecosystems: Function and Management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

Peng, L. and Xin-men, W. 1983. Ecological notes on the mangroves of Fujian, China. In: H.J. Teas (ed.), Biology and Ecology of Mangroves, pp. 31-36. Dr W. Junk Publishers, Boston.

Robertson, A.I. and Alongi, D.M. 1992. Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (eds). 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.

Wells, A.G. 1983. Distribution of mangroves species in Australia. In: H.J. Teas (ed.), Biology and Ecology of Mangroves, pp. 57-76. Dr W. Junk Publishers, Boston.


Citation: Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Excoecaria agallocha. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 29 November 2014.
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