Atkinson, S., Demaster, D. P. and Calkins, D. G. 2008. Anthropogenic causes of the western Steller sea lion population decline and their threat to recovery. Mammal Review In Press(In Press): In Press.
Calkins, D. G. and Pitcher, K. W. 1982. Population assessment ecology and trophic relationships of Steller’s sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental shelf. U.S. Dept. of Commerce and U.S. Dept. of Interior, Final Reports of Principal Investigators, pp. 447-546.
Committee on Taxonomy. 2014. List of marine mammal species and subspecies. Available at: www.marinemammalscience.org. (Accessed: 25 November 2014).
Gerber, L. R. and Van Blaricom, G. R. 2001. Implications of three viability models for the conservation status of the western population of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Biological Conservation 102: 261-269.
Holmes, E. E., Fritz, L. W., York, A. E. and Sweeney, K. 2007. Age-structured modeling reveals long-term declines in the natality of western Steller sea lions. Journal of Applied Ecology 17: 2214-2232.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 October 2012).
Loughlin, T.R. 1997. Using the phylogeographic method to identify Steller sea lion stocks. In: A. Dizon, S.J. Chivers and W.F. Perrin (eds), Molecular Genetics of Marine Mammals, pp. 159–171. Society for Marine Mammalogy Special Publication 3, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.
Loughlin, T.R. 2009. Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus. In: W.F. Perrin, B. Wursig and J.G.M. Thewissen (eds), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 1107-1110. Academic Press.
Loughlin, T. R. and York, A. E. 2000. An accounting of the sources of Steller sea lion, (Eumetopias jubatus), mortality. Marine Fisheries Review 62(4): 40-45.
Loughlin, T.R., Sterling, J.T., Merrick, R.L., Sease, J.L. and York, A.E. 2003. Immature Steller sea lion diving behavior. Fishery Bulletin 101: 566-582.
Lowry, L. F., Frost, K. J. and Loughlin, T. R. 1989. Importance of walleye pollock in the diets of marine mammals in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea, and implications for fishery management. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Biology and Management of Walleye Pollock, November, 1988. Anchorage, AK, U.S.A.: 710-726.
National Marine Fisheries Service. 2008. Recovery Plan for the Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Revision. National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.
Phillips, C.D., Bickham, J.W., Patton, J.C. and Gelatt, T.S. 2009. Systematics of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus): subspecies recognition based on concordance of genetics and morphometrics. Occasional Papers, Museum of Texas Tech University 283: 1-15.
Pitcher, K.W., Calkins, D.G. and Pendleton, G.W. 1998. Reproductive performance of female Steller sea lions: an energetics-based reproductive strategy? Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 2075-2083.
Rehberg, M.J. and Burns, J.M. 2008. Differences in diving and swimming behavior of pup and juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 86: 539-553.
Sinclair, E. and Zeppelin, T. 2002. Seasonal and spatial differences in diet in the western stock of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Journal of Mammalogy 83.
Trites, A. W. and Donnelly, C. P. 2003. The decline of Steller seal lions Eumetopias jubatus in Alaska: a review of the nutritional stress hypothesis. Mammal Review 33(1): 3-28.
Wada, K. 1998. Steller sea lions: present status of studies of migratory ecology, and conflict between fisheries and conservation in Japan. Biosphere Conservation 1: 1-6.
Winship, A. J. and Trites, A. W. 2006. Risk of extirpation os Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands: A population viability analysis based on alternative hypotheses for why sea lions declined in western Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 22(1): 124-155.
York, A. E., Merrick, R. L. and Loughlin, T. R. 1996. An analysis of the Steller sea lion metapopulation in Alaska. In: D. R. McCullough (ed.), Metapopulations and wildlife conservation, Island Press, Washington, DC, USA and Covelo, CA, USA.
|Citation:||Gelatt, T. & Lowry, L. 2012. Eumetopias jubatus ssp. jubatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 September 2015.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|