Utricularia graminifolia 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Scrophulariales Lentibulariaceae

Scientific Name: Utricularia graminifolia
Species Authority: Vahl
Utricularia purpurascens Graham
Taxonomic Notes: According to Janarthanam and Henry (1992) U. purpurascens Graham was validly published on the basis of materials observed in Mahabaleshwar. J. Graham's catalogue in general did not deal with dried specimens in herbariums. In absence of original materials preserved in any of the herbaria, Janarthanam 82941 (MH) collected from the type locality after a lapse of about 150 years is designated as neotype. U. arcuata proved conspecific to U. purpurascens. It is allied to U. albocoerulea differentiated with character of sickle shaped spur of corolla. U. purpurascens Graham is undoubtedly a distinct species and its inclusion under U.graminifolia Vahl by Taylor in 1989 appears to be erroneous.

Although this species is recognized as distinct in Indian literature, it has been included in U. graminifolia by Taylor and appears as such in IPNI and TROPICOS.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-05-04
Assessor(s): Watve, A.
Reviewer(s): Juffe Bignoli, D., Narasimhan, D., Gunaga, S., Kumar, V.S. & Molur, S.
Contributor(s): Molur, S.
This carnivorous plant is found in China, India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. It is common and at places abundant at many locations and no significant decline has been observed in the populations in the past. It is present throughout a wide range with a large area of occupancy and extent of occurrence. Thus, the species is categorized as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The species is found from south China to India. In China, it has been recorded from Yunnan, Fujian, and Guangdong. In India it is found in the northern parts of Western Ghats from Maharashtra, Karnataka and Goa. Janarthanam and Henry (1992) have mentioned Gujarat in the in the distribution based on locality Junnar which is erroneous as Junnar is in Maharashtra. None of the other references record the presence of this species in Gujarat.  All the records are from the top or foothills of Western Ghats.
Countries occurrence:
China (Fujian, Guangdong, Yunnan); India (Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra); Myanmar (Myanmar (mainland)); Sri Lanka
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:3000-4000
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:30000-35000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Lower elevation limit (metres):100
Upper elevation limit (metres):2100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Population data are not available. It forms dense mats of more than 100 individuals per meter in suitable habitats.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:No
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species grows on wet rocks, soil covered boulders and grassy slopes (Janarthanam and Henry 1992).  It grows on primary or secondary bare rocky areas in the Western Ghats hills. It is dominant on basalt and lateritic rock outcrops and forms ephemeral flush vegetation. Other common habitats are marshes, swamps and stream sides.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Custom (.1)
Generation Length (years):1

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: In parts of west Maharashtra, Konkan area and in Goa, the species is used for decoration of Pandal at the time of Ganesh festival. However this is a very minor use and very localised. Hence not influencing the species population to any extent (A. Watve pers. obs. 2010).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Local grazing and trampling pressures are one of the major factors affecting this species in India. This leads to soil compacting, changes in surface drainage and nutrient loads which can affect the species in the long run (A.Watve pers. obs. 2010). Many of the locations are also undergoing changes due to tourism, windmill farming etc. but the species can occupy secondary habitats and is not much affected by these land-use changes. These are not considered as major global threats at the moment but they might be important in the future in the Western Ghats region.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No action has been reported so far.  Since the habitat of this species is under threat from various developmental, tourism and mining activities, it is important to understand the long term impacts of this adaptable species. Continuous monitoring of habitats and populations are recommended.

Classifications [top]

4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability: Suitable  major importance:No
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over part of range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):5
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.3. Work & other activities

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.2. Run-off

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.2. Seepage from mining

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.1. Nutrient loads

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.2. Soil erosion, sedimentation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.3. Herbicides and pesticides

9. Pollution -> 9.4. Garbage & solid waste

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Handicrafts, jewellery, etc.
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).

Janarthanam, M.K. and Henry, A.N. 1992. Bladderworts of India. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata.

Watve, A. Submitted. Plant community studies on rock outcrops in Northern Western Ghats. Agharkar Research Institute, Pune.

Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. and Hong, D.Y. (eds). 2011. Flora of China. Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Citation: Watve, A. 2013. Utricularia graminifolia. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T168720A6529877. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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