Epidendrum montserratense 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Orchidales Orchidaceae

Scientific Name: Epidendrum montserratense
Species Authority: Nir
Common Name(s):
English Montserrat Orchid

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2010-03-12
Assessor(s): Jones, M., Clubbe, C. & Hamilton, M.
Reviewer(s): Rankou, H. & Hilton-Taylor, C.
Justification:
This orchid is assessed as Critically Endangered based on field observations of decreasing population due to habitat loss and fragmentation caused primarily by development pressures for housing and agriculture. Grazing by feral animals and volcanic activity are also causing population decline, the former primarily in the Silver Hills and the latter primarily south of the Belham Valley.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Recorded only from the Leeward Is. (Montserrat). Recorded from 5 up to 400 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Montserrat
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:12
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):5
Upper elevation limit (metres):400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The number of subpopulations (three) is based on the Grid Adjacency method. The population size is not known.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:An epiphytic or lithophytic orchid found predominantly in tropical dry forest and tropical dry/mesic forest transition with occasional occurrences in tropical wet forest. Most frequently recorded growing on Mangifera indica L. (introduced) and Tabebuia pallida (Lindl.) Miers (native). Also recorded growing on other species of native trees and on abandoned sugar mills.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There is limited local harvesting of mature individuals for private garden display. No commercial trade is known.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Loss and fragmentation of habitat due to human development and volcanic activity are the main threats. There is also loss of host plants and mature individuals of E. montserratense due to uncontrolled grazing (mostly goats).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are ex situ conservation collections of mature individuals at the Montserrat National Trust Botanic Garden (largely plant rescues from mango trees killed by volcanic activity, this an ongoing source of plants). There are also ex situ conservation collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew's Conservation Biotechnology Unit in Micropropagation. Seed collected in May 2006 is stored in the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew's Millennium Seed Bank. A small proportion of the Centre Hills subpopulation falls within the Centre Hills Forest Reserve. A species action plan is being developed. The species is included on CITES Appendix II.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Marginal  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.4. Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
suitability: Marginal  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

10. Geological events -> 10.1. Volcanoes
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation


♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Govaerts, R. 2010. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Available at: http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/home.do.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Jones, M. 2008. Distribution and Conservation of Montserrat's Endemic Flora. Msc Thesis, Imperial College.

Nir, M.A. 2000. Orchidaceae Antillanae. DAG Media, New York.

Young, R.P. 2008. A biodiversity assessment of the Centre Hills, Montserrat. Available at: http://www.kew.org/science/directory/projects/annex/Durrell_Cons_Monogra.pdf.


Citation: Jones, M., Clubbe, C. & Hamilton, M. 2012. Epidendrum montserratense. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T16726356A16726372. . Downloaded on 25 July 2016.
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