Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Pomacanthidae

Scientific Name: Apolemichthys xanthotis
Species Authority: (Fraser-Brunner, 1950)
Common Name(s):
English Yellow-ear Angelfish, Red Sea Angelfish
Holacanthus xanthotis Fraser-Brunner, 1950

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-08
Assessor(s): Pyle, R. & Craig, M.T.
Reviewer(s): Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.

Listed as Least Concern in view of its relatively wide distribution, presumed large population and no apparent major threats.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found throughout much of the Red Sea, from the Gulf of Aqaba southward, and occurs in the adjacent Gulf of Aden (Allen 1980). It has been recorded from Socotra Island (Yemen). Recently recorded from the Andaman Sea at western Thailand (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). Transient population recorded from Kenya following 1998 El NiƱo event (Debelius et al. 2003). It has been observed between 10 to 80 m.
Countries occurrence:
Bahrain; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kuwait; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Sudan; United Arab Emirates; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – western
Lower depth limit (metres):80
Upper depth limit (metres):10
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is generally common with stable populations.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is associated with coral reefs and rocky reefs, where it is usually observed in pairs or less frequently in small groups. It probably feeds on algae, sponges, and benthic invertebrates (Allen 1980).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Endoh (2007) notes that it is not popular in the aquarium trade, and is only rarely collected for aquariums.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

There appear to be no major threats to this species. Collection is limited and is not considered to be impacting the global population.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

There appear to be no species-specific conservation measures in place. This species is believed to be present within some marine protected areas.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.1. Outer Reef Channel
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.3. Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Allen, G.R. 1980. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Wiley, New York.

Allen, G.R., Steene, R. and Allen, M. 1998. A guide to angelfishes and butterflyfishes. Odyssey Publishing/Tropical Reef Research.

Debelius, H., Tanaka, H. and Kuiter, R.H. 2003. Angelfishes, a comprehensive guide to Pomacanthidae. TMC Publishing, Chorley.

Endoh, K. 2007. Angelfishes of the World. Two Little Fishies, Inc., Miami Gardens, Florida.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

Lieske, E. and Myers, R. 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific and Caribbean including the Red Sea. Harper Collins Publishers.

Citation: Pyle, R. & Craig, M.T. 2010. Apolemichthys xanthotis. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T165853A6149398. . Downloaded on 08 October 2015.
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