Panthera tigris


Bibliography [top]

Chapron, G., Miquelle, D.G., Lambert, A., Goodrich, J.M., Legendre, S. and Clobert, J. 2008. The impact on tigers of poaching versus prey depletion. Journal of Applied Ecology 45(6): 1667-1674.

CITES. 2008. Asian Big Cats. Decision 14.69.

Dinerstein, E., Loucks, C., Wikramanayake, E., Ginsburg, J., Sanderson, E., Seidensticker, J., Forrest, J., Bryja, G., Heydlauff, A., Klenzendorf, S., Leimgruber, P., Mills, J., O'Brien, T. G., Shrestha, M., Simons, R. and Songer, M. 2007. The fate of wild tigers. Bioscience 57(6): 508-514.

Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E. D., Robinson, J., Karanth, U., Rabinowitz, A., Olson, D., Mathew, T., Hedao, P., Connor, P., Hemley, G. and Bolze, D. 1997. A Framework for Identifying High Priority Areas and Actions for the Conservation of Tigers in the Wild. A Framework for Identifying High Priority Areas and Actions for the Conservation of Tigers in the Wild.

Forrest, J.L., Bomhard, B., Budiman, A., Coad, L., Cox, N., Dinerstein, E., Hammer, D., Huang, C., Huy, K., Kraft, R., Lysenko, I. and Magrath, W. 2011. Single-species conservation in a multiple-use landscape: current protection of the tiger range. Animal Conservation 14(3): 283-294.

GTRP. 2010. Global Tiger Recovery Program, 2010-2022. Thirteen Tiger Range Countries and Partners of the Global Tiger Initiative. World Bank, Washington DC.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. 2010. Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 8.1. Available at:

Jhala, Y.V., Qureshi, Q. and Sinha, P.R. 2011. Status of tigers, co-predators and prey in India. National Tiger Conservation Authority, Govt of India and the Wildlife Institute of India, New Delhi and Dehra Dun, India.

Karanth, K. U., Kumar, N. S., Nichols, J. D., Link, W. A. and Hines, J. E. 2004. Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 4854-4858.

Khan, M. M. H. 2004. Ecology and Conservation of the Bengal Tiger in the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest of Bangladesh. University of Cambridge, Department of Anatomy.

Luo, S. J., Kim, J. H., Johnson, W. E., Van Der Walt, J., Martenson, J., Yuhki, N., Miquelle, D. G., Uphyrkina, O., Goodrich, J. M., Quigley, H., Tilson, R., Brady, G., Martelli, P., Subramaniam, V., Mcdougal, C., Hean, S., Huang, S. Q., Pan, W., Karanth, U. K., Sunquist, M., Smith, J. L. D. and O'Brien, S. J. 2004. Phylogeography and genetic ancestry of tigers (Panthera tigris). PLoS Biology 2: 2275-2293.

Ng, J. and Nemora. 2007. Tiger trade revisited in Sumatra, Indonesia. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya.

Nowell, K. 2000. Far from a cure: The tiger trade revisited. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK.

Nowell,K. 2007. Asian big cat conservation and trade control in selected range States: evaluating implementation and effectiveness of CITES Recommendations. TRAFFIC International, Cambrudge, UK.

Nowell, K. and Jackson, P. 1996. Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Nowell, K. and Xu, Ling. 2007. Taming the tiger trade: China's markets for wild and captive tiger products since the 1993 domestic trade ban. TRAFFIC East Asia, Hong Kong, China.

Sanderson, E., Forrest, J., Loucks, C., Ginsberg, J., Dinerstein, E., Seidensticker, J., Leimgruber, P., Songer, M., Heydlauff, A., O'Brien, T., Bryja, G., Klenzendorf, S and Wikramanayake, E. 2006. Setting Priorities for the Conservation and Recovery of Wild Tigers: 2005-2015. The Technical Assessment. WCS, WWF, Smithsonian, and NFWF-STF, New York and Washington, DC, USA.

Seidensticker J., Christie S. and Jackson, P. 1999. Preface. In: J. Seidensticker, S. Christie and P. Jackson (eds), Riding the tiger: tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Sunquist, M. and Sunquist, F. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press.

TRAFFIC. 2008. What’s driving the wildlife trade? IDRB, World Bank, US.

Verheij, P.M., Foley, K.E. and Engel, K. 2010. Reduced to skin and bones: An analysis of Tiger seizures from 11 Tiger range countries (2000-2010). TRAFFIC International.

Walston, J., Karanth, K.U. and Stokes, E.J. 2010a. Avoiding the unthinkable: what will it cost to prevent tigers becoming extinct in the wild? Wildlife Conservation Society, New York.

Walston, J., Robinson, J.G., Bennett, E.L., Breitenmoser, U., da Fonseca G.A.B., Goodrich, J., Gumal, M., Hunter, L., Johnson, A., Karanth, K.U., Leader-Williams, N., MacKinnon, K., Miquelle, D., Pattanavibool, A., Poole, C., Rabinowitz, A., Smith, J.L.D., Stokes, E.J., Stuart, S.N., Vongkhamheng, C. and Wibisono, H. 2010. Bringing the Tiger Back from the Brink—The Six Percent Solution. PLoS Biology 8(9): e1000485.

Wang, S. W. 2008. Understanding ecological interactions among carnivores, ungulates and farmers in Bhutan's Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University.

Wikramanayake, E., Dinerstein, E., Forrest, J., Loucks, C., Seidensticker, J., Klenzendorf, S., Sanderson, E.W., Simons, R., Heydlauff, A., Ginsberg, J., O'Brien, T., Leimgruber, P., Songer, M. and Bryja, G. 2010. Roads to recovery or catastrophic loss: How will the next decade end for wild Tigers? Pp in R. In: R. Tilson and P. Nyhus (eds), Tigers of the world: the science, politics and conservation of Panthera tigris, pp. 493-505. Elsevier/Academic Press.

Citation: Chundawat, R.S., Habib, B., Karanth, U., Kawanishi, K., Ahmad Khan, J., Lynam, T., Miquelle, D., Nyhus, P., Sunarto, S., Tilson, R. & Sonam Wang 2011. Panthera tigris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 26 May 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided