Map_thumbnail_large_font

Pan troglodytes 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Translate page into:

Bibliography [top]

Adanu, J., Sommer, V. and Fowler, A. 2011. Hunters, fire, cattle. Conservation challenges in eastern Nigeria, with special reference to chimpanzees. In: V. Sommer and C. Ross (eds), Primates of Gashaka: Socioecology and Conservation in Nigeria’s Biodiversity Hotspot, pp. 55–100. Springer, New York.

Ancrenaz, M., Cheyne, S.M., Humle, T. and Robbins, M.M. 2015. Impacts of industrial agriculture on ape ecology. In: Arcus Foundation (ed.), State of the Apes 2015: Industrial Agriculture and Ape Conservation, pp. 165–192. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Anthony, N.M., Johnson-Bawe, M., Jeffery, K., Clifford, S.L., Abernethy, K.A., Tutin, C.E., Lahm, S.A., White, L.J.T., Utley, J.F., Wickings, E.J. and Bruford, M.W. 2007. The role of Pleistocene refugia and rivers in shaping gorilla genetic diversity in central Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104: 20432–20436.

Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. 1984. Possible causes of sex-differences in the use of natural hammers by wild chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution 13: 415–440.

Brncic, T., Amarasekaran, B. and McKenna, A. 2010. Sierra Leone National Chimpanzee Census. September 2010. Tacugama Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

Butynski, T.M. 2003. The robust chimpanzee Pan troglodytes: Taxonomy, distribution, abundance, and conservation status. In: R. Kormos, C. Boesch, M.I. Bakarr, T.M. Butynski (eds). West African Chimpanzees, Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 5-12. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

CITES Secretariat. 2014. Great apes exported from Guinea to China from 2009 to 2011. Available at: https://cites.org/sites/default/files/common/docs/CITES-Guinea-China-great-apes.pdf.

Desclée, B., Hansen, M., Lola Amani, P., Sannier, C., Mertens, B. et al. 2014. Evolution of forest cover at a national and regional scale and drivers of change. In: de Wasseige, C., Flynn, J., Louppe, D., Hiol Hiol, F. and Mayaux, P. (eds), The Forests of the Congo Basin – State of the Forest 2013, pp. 21–46. Weyrich Édition, Neufchâteau, Belgium.

Edwards, D.P., Sloan, S., Weng, L., Dirks, P., Sayer, J. and Laurance, W.F. 2014. Mining and the African environment. Conservation Letters 7(3): 302-311.

Formenty, P., Boesch, C., Wyers, M., Steiner, C., Donati, F., Dind, F., Walker, F. and Le Guenno, B. 1999. Ebola virus outbreak among wild chimpanzees living in a rain forest of Cote d'Ivoire. Journal of Infectious Disease 179(Suppl 1): S120–126.

Fowler, A. and Sommer, V. 2007. Subsistence technology of Nigerian chimpanzees. International Journal of Primatology 28: 997–1023.

Fünfstück, T., Arandjelovic, M., Morgan, D.B., Sanz, C., Breuer, T. et al. 2014. The genetic population structure of wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) living in continuous rain forest. American Journal of Primatology 76: 868–878.

Fünfstück, T., Arandjelovic, M., Morgan, D.B., Sanz, C., Olson, S.H., Cameron, K., Ondzie, A., Peeters, M. and Vigilant, L. 2015. The sampling scheme matters: Pan troglodytes troglodytes and P. t. schweinfurthii are characterized by clinal genetic variation rather than a strong subspecies break. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 156: 181–191.

Gilardi, K.V., Gillespie, T.R., Leendertz, F.H., Macfie, E.J., Travis, D.A., Whittier, C.A. and Williamson, E.A. 2015. Best Practice Guidelines for Health Monitoring and Disease Control in Great Ape Populations. IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Global Forest Watch. 2016. Available at: http://www.globalforestwatch.org/map/6/0.74/15.68/ALL/grayscale/none/581.

Gonder, M.K., Disotell, T.R. and Oates, J.F. 2006. New genetic evidence on the evolution of chimpanzee populations, and implications for taxonomy. International Journal of Primatology 27: 1103–1127.

Gonder, M.K., Locatelli, S., Ghobrial, L., Mitchell, M.W., Kujawski, J.T., Lankester, F.J., Stewart, C-B. and Tishkoff, S.A. 2011. Evidence from Cameroon reveals differences in the genetic structure and histories of chimpanzee populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108: 4766–4771.

Goodall, J. 1986. The chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of behavior. Harvard University Press.

Greengrass, E.J. and Maisels, F. 2007. Conservation of the Nigerian-Cameroon chimpanzee P. t. vellerosus (and other mammals) in and around the Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary, South-west Province, Cameroon. Wildlife Conservation Society, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Hakizimana, D. and Huynen, M.-C. 2013. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) population density and abundance in Kibira National Park, Burundi. Pan Africa News 20: 16–19.

Ham, R. 1998. Nationwide chimpanzee survey and large mammal survey, Republic of Guinea. European Union, Guinea-Conakry.

Hanamura, S., Kiyono, M., Nakamura, M., Sakamaki, T., Itoh, N., Zamma, K., Kitopeni, R., Matumula, M. and Nishida, T. 2006. A new code of observation employed at Mahale: prevention against a flu-like disease. Pan Africa News 13(2): 13-16.

Hicks, C., Darby, L., Hart, J., Swinkels, J., January, N. and Menken, S. 2010. Trade in orphans and bushmeat threatens one of the Democratic Republic of the Congo's most important populations of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). African Primates 7: 1–18.

Hicks, T.C., Tranquilli, S., Kühl, H.S., Campbell, G., Swinkels, J., Darby, L., Boesch, C., Hart, J. and Menken, S.B. 2014. Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence: discovery of a large, continuous population of Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in the Central Uele region of northern DRC. Biological Conservation 171: 107–113.

Humle, T. 2011. The 2003 epidemic of a flu-like respiratory disease at Bossou. In: T. Matsuzawa, T. Humle and Y. Sugiyama (eds), Chimpanzees of Bossou and Nimba, pp. 325–333. Springer Verlag, Tokyo.

IUCN. 2014. Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of Western Lowland Gorillas and Central Chimpanzees 2015–2025. IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).

IUCN SSC A.P.E.S. database. 2016. Ape Populations, Environments and Surveys database. Leipzig Available at: http://apesportal.eva.mpg.de/database/archiveTable.

IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group. 2014. Industrial oil palm expansion in great ape habitat in Africa. A policy statement from the Section on Great Apes (SGA) of the IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group. Available at: http://www.primate-sg.org/position-statements.

Köndgen, S., Kühl, H., N'Goran, P.K., Walsh, P.D., Schenk, S., Ernst, N., Biek, R., Formenty, P., Maetz-Rensing, K., Schweiger, B., Junglen, S., Ellerbrok, H., Nitsche, A., Briese, T., Lipkin, W. I., Pauli, G., Boesch, C. and Leendertz, F.H. 2008. Pandemic human viruses cause decline of endangered great apes. Current Biology 18: 260–264.

Kormos, R. and Boesch, C. (eds). 2003. Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of Chimpanzees in West Africa. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group and Conservation International, Washington D.C.

Kormos, R., Boesch, C., Bakarr, M.I. and Butynski, T.M. (eds). 2003. West African Chimpanzees: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. pp. 219. IUCN, Gland.

Kormos, R., Humle, T., Brugière, D. Fleury-Brugière, M.-C., Matsuzawa, T., Sugiyama, Y., Carter, J., Diallo, M.S., Sagno, C. and Tounkara, E.O. 2003. The Republic of Guinea. In: Kormos, R., Boesch, C., Bakkar, M. and Butynski, T.M. (eds), West African Chimpanzees: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, pp. 63–76. IUCN, Gland.

Kühl, H., Maisels, F., Ancrenaz, M. and Williamson, E.A. 2008. Best Practice Guidelines for Surveys and Monitoring of Great Ape Populations. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Langergraber, K.E., Prüfer, K., Rowney, C., Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Fawcett, K., Inoue, E., Inoue-Muruyama, M., Mitani, J.C., Muller, M.N., Robbins, M.M., Schubert, G., Stoinski, T.S., Viola, B., Watts, D., Wittig, R.M., Wrangham, R.W., Zuberbühler, K., Pääbo, S. and Vigilant, L. 2012. Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109: 15716–15721.

Lanjouw, A. 2014. Mining/oil extraction and ape populations and habitats. In: Arcus Foundation (ed.), State of the Apes 2013: Extractive Industries and Ape Conservation, pp. 127–161. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Laporte, N.T., Stabach, J.A., Grosch, R., Lin, T.S. and Goetz, S.J. 2007. Expansion of industrial logging in Central Africa. Science 316: 1451.

Laurance, W.F., Clements, G.R., Sloan, S., O/'Connell, C.S., Mueller, N.D., Goosem, M., Venter, O., Edwards, D.P., Phalan, B., Balmford, A., Van Der Ree, R. and Arrea, I.B. 2014. A global strategy for road building. Nature 513: 229–232.

Leciak, E., Hladik, A. and Hladik, C.M. 2005. The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and the cores of high biodiversity in gallery forests of Guinea in relation to human and chimpanzees commensalism. Revue d’Ecologie (Terre et Vie) 60: 179–184.

Leendertz, F.H., Pauli, G., Maetz-Rensing, K., Boardman, W., Nunn, C. et al. 2006. Pathogens as drivers of population declines: the importance of systematic monitoring in great apes and other threatened mammals. Biological Conservation 131: 325–337.

Maisels, F., Ambahe, E., Ambassa, R., Nyemgah Yara C. and Fosso, B. 2009. Great ape and human impact monitoring in the Mbam et Djerem National park, Cameroon. Final report to USFWS. Wildlife Conservation Society, New York.

Maisels, F., Ella Akou, M., Douckaga, M. and Moundounga, A. 2004. Mwagne National Park, Gabon: large mammals and human impact. WCS/WWF Gabon.

Maisels, F., Strindberg, S., Kiminou, F., Ndzai, C., Ngounga, R. et al. 2013. Wildlife and Human Impact Survey 2012, and monitoring 2005–2008–2012. Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Republic of Congo. Fondation Odzala-Kokoua and Wildlife Conservation Society, Brazzaville, Congo.

Matsuzawa, T., Humle, T. and Sugiyama, Y. (eds). 2011. Chimpanzees of Bossou and Nimba. Springer Verlag, Tokyo.

Mitani, J.C. and Watts, D.P. 2005. Correlates of territorial boundary patrol behaviour in wild chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour 70: 1079–1086.

Mitchell M.W., Locatelli S., Ghobrial L., Pokempner, A.A., Sesink Clee, P.R., Abwe, E.E., Nicholas, A., Nkembi, L., Anthony, N.M., Morgan, B.J., Fotso, R., Peeters, M., Hahn, B.H. and Gonder, M.K. 2015a. The population genetics of wild chimpanzees in Cameroon and Nigeria suggests a positive role for selection in the evolution of chimpanzee subspecies. BMC Evolutionary Biology 15: 3.

Morgan, B., Adeleke, A., Bassey, T., Bergl, R., Dunn, A., Fotso, R., Gadsby, E., Gonder, K., Greengrass, E., Koulagna, D.K., Mbah, G., Nicholas, A., Oates, J., Omeni, F., Saidu, Y., Sommer, V., Sunderland-Groves, J., Tiebou, J. and Williamson, E.A. 2011. Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of the Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti). IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group and Zoological Society of San Diego, San Diego.

Morgan, D. and Sanz, C. 2007. Best Practice Guidelines for Reducing the Impact of Commercial Logging on Great Apes in Western Equatorial Africa. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Morgan, D., Sanz, C., Greer, D., Rayden, T., Maisels, F. and Williamson, E.A. 2013. Great Apes and FSC: Implementing ‘Ape Friendly’ Practices in Central Africa’s Logging Concessions. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Newton-Fisher, N.E. 2003. The home range of the Sonso community of chimpanzees from the Budongo Forest, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 41: 150–156.

Nishida, T., Corp, N., Hamai, M., Hasegawa, T., Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M., Hosaka, K., Hunt, K. D., Itoh, N., Kawanaka, K., Matsumoto-Oda, A., Mitani, J. C., Nakamura, M., Norikoshi, K., Sakamaki, T., Turner, L., Uehara, S. and Zamma, K. 2003. Demography, female life history, and reproductive profiles among the chimpanzees of Mahale. American Journal of Primatology 59: 99-121.

Oates, J. 2006. Is the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, an endangered species? It depends on what ‘‘endangered’’ means. Primates 47: 102–112.

Ogunjemite, B.G., Ashimi, T.A., Adeleke, A. and Okeyoyin, O.A. 2010. Population status of the Nigerian chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes ellioti) in Gashaka-Mambilla Region, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Technology 1: 52–59.

Piel, A.K., Cohen, N., Ndimuligo, S.A., Pintea, L. and Stewart, F.A. 2015. Population status of chimpanzees in the Masito-Ugalla Ecosystem, Tanzania. American Journal of Primatology 77: 1027–1035.

Plumptre, A.J., Akwetaireho, S., Hanni, D.C., Leal, M., Mutungire, M., Kyamanywa, J., Tumuhamye, D., Johnson, A. and Isoke, S. 2010b. Biodiversity Surveys of Bugoma Forest Reserve, Smaller Central Forest Reserves, and Corridor Forests South of Bugoma. Report to UNDP/GEF project UG0031.01. Wildlife Conservation Society, Kampala, Uganda.

Plumptre A.J., Cox D. and Mugume, S. 2003a. The Status of Chimpanzees in Uganda. Albertine Rift Technical Report Series. Wildlife Conservation Society, Kampala, Uganda.

Plumptre, A.J., Nixon, S., Critchlow, R., Vieilledent, G., Nishuli, R., Kirkby, A., Williamson, E.A., Hall, J.S. and Kujirakwinja, D. 2015. Status of Grauer’s Gorilla and Chimpanzee in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: Historical and Current Distribution and Abundance. Wildlife Conservation Society, Fauna & Flora International and Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature, New York.

Plumptre, A.J., Rose, R., Nangendo, G., Williamson, E.A., Didier, K., Hart, J., Mulindahabi, F., Hicks, C., Griffin, B., Ogawa, H., Nixon, S., Pintea, L., Vosper, A., McClennan, M., Amsini, F., McNeilage, A., Makana, J.R., Kanamori, M., Hernandez, A., Piel, A., Stewart, F., Moore, J., Zamma, K., Nakamura, M., Kamenya, S., Idani, G., Sakamaki, T., Yoshikawa, M., Greer, D., Tranquilli, S., Beyers, R., Furuichi, T., Hashimoto, C. and Bennett, E. 2010a. Eastern Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan 2010–2020. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Prado-Martinez, J., Sudmant, P.H., Kidd, J.M., Li H., Kelley J.L. et al. 2013. Great ape genetic diversity and population history. Nature 499: 471–475.

Quiatt, D., Reynolds, V. and Stokes, E.J. 2002. Snare injuries to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at 10 study sites in East and West Africa. African Journal of Ecology 40: 303–305.

Reed, P.E., Cameron, K.N., Ondzie, A.U., Joly, D., Karesh, W.B. et al. 2014. A new approach for monitoring Ebolavirus in wild great apes. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8: e3143.

Rival, A. and Levang, P. 2014. Palms of Controversies: Oil Palm and Development Challenges. CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia.

Ruysschaert, D. and Rainer, H. 2015. From process to impact of a voluntary standard: the roundtable on sustainable palm oil. In: Arcus Foundation (ed.), Industrial Agriculture and Ape Conservation: State of the Apes 2015, pp. 135–163. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Samson, D.R. and Hunt, K.D. 2012. A thermodynamic comparison of arboreal and terrestrial sleeping sites for dry-habitat chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at the Toro-Semliki Wildlife Reserve, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology 74: 811–818.

Sop, T., Cheyne, S.M., Maisels, F.G., Wich, S.A. and Williamson, E.A. 2015. Abundance annex: ape population abundance estimates. In: Arcus Foundation (ed.), State of the Apes 2015: Industrial Agriculture and Ape Conservation, pp. 1–41. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Sop, T., Mundry, R., Colleen, S. and Kühl, H.S. In prep. Report on estimated trends in abundance of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

Sousa, J., Barata, A.V., Sousa, C., Casanova, C.C.N. and Vicente, L. 2011. Chimpanzee oil-palm use in Southern Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. American Journal of Primatology 73: 485–497.

Strindberg, S., Maisels, F. et al. In prep. Guns, germs and trees: key factors influencing the status of gorillas and chimpanzees in Western Equatorial Africa.

Tutin, C.,Stokes, E., Boesch, C., Morgan, D., Sanz, C., Reed, T., Blom, A., Walsh, P., Blake, S. and Kormos, R. 2005. Regional Action Plan for the Conservation of Chimpanzees and Gorillas in Western Equatorial Africa. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group and Conservation International, Washington DC.

Tweh, C.G., Lormie, M.M., Kouakou, C.Y., Hillers, A., Kuhl, H.S. and Junker, J. 2015. Conservation status of chimpanzees Pan troglodytes verus and other large mammals in Liberia: a nationwide survey. Oryx 49: 710–718.

Walsh, P.D., Abernethy, K.A., Bermejo, M., Beyersk, R., De Wachter, P., Akou, M.E., Huijbregts, B., Mambounga, D.I., Toham, A.K., Kilbournk, A.M., Lahmq, S.A., Latourk, S., Maiselsk, S.F., Mbinak, C., Mihindouk, Y., Obiang, S.N., Effa, E.N., Starkeyk, M. 2003. Catastrophic ape decline in western equatorial Africa. Nature 422: 611–614.

Walsh, P.D., Bermejo, M. and Rodriguez-Teijeiro, J.D. 2009. Disease avoidance and the evolution of primate social connectivity: Ebola, bats, gorillas, and chimpanzees. In: M.A. Huffman and C.A. Chapman (eds), Primate Parasite Ecology: The Dynamics and Study of Host–Parasite Relationships, pp. 183–198. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Walsh, P.D., Biek, R. and Real, L.A. 2005. Wave-like spread of Ebola Zaire. PLoS Biology 3: 1946–1953.

Walsh, P.D., Breuer, T., Sanz, C., Morgan, D. and Doran-Sheehy, D. 2007. Potential for Ebola transmission between gorilla and chimpanzee social groups. American Naturalist 169: 684–689.

Wanyama, F., Muhabwe, R., Plumptre, A.J., Chapman, C.A. and Rothman, J.M. 2009. Censusing large mammals in Kibale National Park: evaluation of the intensity of sampling required to determine change. African Journal of Ecology 48: 953–961.

WCF. 2012. Etat de la faune et des ménaces dans les aires protégées terrestres et principales zones de forte biodiversité de République de Guinée. Wild Chimpanzee Foundation, Conakry, Guinea.

Wich, S.A., Garcia-Ulloa, J., Kühl, H.S., Humle, T., Lee, J.S. and Koh, L.P. 2014. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes? Current Biology 24: 1659–1663.

Williamson, E.A., Maisels, F.G., Groves, C.P., Fruth, B., Humle, T.H., Morton, F.B., Richardson, M.C., Russon, A. and Singleton, I. 2013. Hominidae. In: R.A. Mittermeier, A.B. Rylands and D.E. Wilson (eds), Handbook of the Mammals of the World, pp. 792–854. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Zimmerman, B.L. and Kormos, C.F. 2012. Prospects for sustainable logging in tropical forests. BioScience 62: 479–487.


Citation: Humle, T., Maisels, F., Oates, J.F., Plumptre, A. & Williamson, E.A. 2016. Pan troglodytes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T15933A17964454. . Downloaded on 27 September 2016.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided