Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Cervidae

Scientific Name: Ozotoceros bezoarticus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Pampas Deer
Spanish Ciervo Pampero, Ciervo De Las Pampas, Venado Campero, Venado De Campo, Venado De Las Pampas
French Goazu, Cerf Des Pampas
Taxonomic Notes: The taxonomy and systematics of the Pampas Deer have been based primarily on morphological data. Cabrera (1943) described the following subspecies: O. b. bezoarticus ranging from eastern and central Brazil south of Amazonia between the Mato Grosso plateau and the upper Rio San Francisco; O. b. celer inhabiting the entire Argentinean Pampas from the Atlantic coast to the Andean foothills and southward to the Rio Negro; O. b. leucogaster living in southwestern Brazil, southeastern Bolivia, Paraguay and northern Argentina. The Uruguayan Pampas may contain a distinct subspecies (González et al. 1989, 1992).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Gonzalez, S. & Merino, M.L.
Reviewer(s): Black, P. (Deer Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
This species is considered to be Near Threatened in light of an ongoing decline, however, not currently at a rate sufficient to qualify for Vulnerable under criterion A2c or A3c. Habitat conversion to agriculture and cattle farming, and hunting and persecution by feral dogs are constant threats, and the species is confined to a human dominated landscape with only patches of remaining habitat. Although the pampas deer is adaptable to some degree of habitat modification, it should be monitored to ensure rates of decline do not increase. The former range of the pampas deer has been dramatically reduced to less than 1% of that present in 1900 (González 1993, 1996). Habitat fragmentation is a serious threat to the existing population (González, 2004) .
Previously published Red List assessments:
2002 Near Threatened (NT)
1996 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Insufficiently Known (K)
1965 Status inadequately known-survey required or data sought

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The pampas deer occurs in insular populations in western, northern, and central Argentina, eastern Bolivia, central and southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Prior to the 1800's, the species was abundant throughout the grasslands of South America (Wemmer 1998). The Pampas deer was a widespread species occupying a range of open habitats, including grasslands, pampas and the Brazilian savanna known as the Cerrado, in eastern South America from 5º to 41ºS (Cabrera 1943; Jackson 1987; Merino et al. 1997; González et al. 1998; 2002; González, 2004; Weber and González 2003). However, the area encompassed by these habitats has been dramatically reduced to less than 1% of that present in 1900 (González et al., 1998). Currently, Pampas deer populations are generally small and highly isolated (Jackson and Langguth 1987; González et al. 1998: 2002). The largest extant populations are found in Brazil, in the northeast cerrado ecosystem where about 2,000 individuals live, and in the Pantanal where 20,000 to 40,000 exist (Pinder 1994), and was rediscovered in the South a small population in Paraná State estimated in less of 100 individuals Braga et al.2005, . In Uruguay there are two main populations: El Tapado (Salto Department) with 800 individuals, and Los Ajos (Rocha Department) with approximately 300 deer (Weber and González, 2003 ). At the turn of the century, the Argentinean population was likely very large since over 500,000 km² of grassland habitat was available. However, today only three small populations remain: Corrientes (Ituzaingo Department) with about 170 individuals (Merino and Beccaceci, 1999), in San Luís Province) with approximately 800-1000 individuals (Merino et al. 1997) and coastal Bahía de Samborombóm (Buenos Aires Province) with about 200 individuals (Merino et al. 1997) and in Santa Fé “Bajos Submeridionales” area there is a small population estimated less 50 individuals lives in an area of 23,000 ha. (Vera Department, Pautasso et al. 2002a and b). A small population may still be extant in the southeastern part of Bolivia (Weber and González, 2003). Small populations of Pampas deer may still be extant in the National Park Noel Kempff Mercado (Santa Cruz Department), in southwestern Bolivia (Anderson 1985; 1993; Tarifa 1993). However, it is restricted to relatively small patches of suitable habitat and may have become locally extinct in some of them.
Countries occurrence:
Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Paraguay; Uruguay
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is not update information of total population size there are partical estimation for population specifically in the Southern part of South America. The general trend is not possible to estimate for the species. The populations from Argentina and Uruguay show a decline trend (González et al., 2002). A minumum estimate for the total population size is 20,000 (Pinder, 1994), while the miximum population size is estimated at 80,000 (Pinder, 1994) individuals.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:20000-80000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species occupies a range of open habitats, in particular grassland areas and the cerrado shrublands. In Argentina, coastal salt marshes are also utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat conversion for agriculture and competition with domestic livestock have been reported as threats to the pampas deer (Wemmer 1998). Other threats include over-exploitation for food, hides, and sport, predation by feral dogs, and possibly bovine disease (Wemmer 1998).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Included on CITES Appendix I. Recommended conservation actions include further population surveys, ecological research, strengthening of existing management of protected areas, creation of new protected areas, establishment of a collaborative captive breeding program, and enlisting the co-operation of local landowners in maintaining this species (Wemmer 1998). Some measures must be implemented to develop privately owned protected areas in order to preserve these last populations. These measures must include exoneration of taxes by government agencies and other fiscal incentives to stimulate private conservation action (González, et al., 2002.)

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability: Suitable  
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.17. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Marginal  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.3. Limiting population growth
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:Yes
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.1. Small-holder plantations
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Canis familiaris)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Food - animal
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Wearing apparel, accessories
 Local : ✓   National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Anderson, S. 1985. Lista preliminar de mamíferos bolivianos. Cuadernos Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia 65: 5-16.

Anderson, S. 1993. Los mamíferos bolivianos: notas de distribución y claves de identificación. Publicación especial del Instituto de Ecología- Colección Boliviana de Fauna, La Paz, Bolivia.

Braga, F. G., González, S. and Maldonado, J. E. 2005. Characterization of the genetic variability of Pampas deer in the state of Paraná. Deer Specialist Group News, Uruguay 20: 2-4.

Cabrera, A. 1943. Sobre la sistemática del venado y su variación individual y geográfica. Revista del Museo de la Plata (NS), Tomo III, Zool 18: 5-41.

González, S. 2004. Biología y conservación de Cérvidos Neotropicales del Uruguay.: 57 pp.

González, S., Alvarez, F. and Maldonado, J. E. 2002. Morphometric Differentiation of the Endangered Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus L. 1758). Journal of Mammalogy 83(4): 1127-1140.

González, S., Maldonado, J. E., Leonard, J. A., Vilà, C., Barbanti Duarte, J. M., Merino, M., Brum-Zorrilla, N. and Wayne, R. K. 1998. Conservation genetics of the endangered Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). Molecular Ecology 7: 47-56.

González, S., Merino, M., Gimenez Dixon, M., Ellis, S. and Seal, U. S. 1994. Population and habitat viability assessment for the Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). Workshop Report Captive Breeding Specialist Group. Apple Valley, Minnesota, USA.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Jackson, J. E. 1987. Ozotoceros bezoarticus. Mammalian Species 295: 1-5.

Jackson, J. E. and Langguth, A. 1987. Ecology and status of Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) in the Argentinian pampas and Uruguay. Biology and Management of the Cervidae: 402-409.

Merino, M. L., González, S., Leeuwenberg, F., Rodrigues, F. H. G., Pinder, L. and Tomas, W. M. 1997. Veado-campeiro (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). Biologia e conservação de cervídeos Sul-americanos: Blastocerus, Ozotoceros e Mazama: 238 pp.

Pautasso, A. and Peña, M. 2002. Estado de conocimiento actual y registros de mortalidad de Ozotoceros bezoarticus en la Província de Santa Fé. Argentina. Deer Specialist Group News 17: 14-15.

Pautasso, A., Peña, M., Mastropaulo, J. and Moggia, L. 2002. Distribución y conservación del Venado de las Pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster) en el norte de Santa Fe, Argentina. Mastozoología Neotropical 9(1): 64-69.

Pinder, L. 1994. Status of Pampas deer in Brazil. In: S. González, M. Merino, M. Gimenez-Dixon and S. Ellis (eds), Seal Population and Habitat Viability Assessment for the Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus). Report CBSG/IUCN,, Apple Valley, Minnesota, USA.

Tarifa, T. 1993. Situación de la especie en Boliva. In: CBSG and IUCN (eds), Pampas Deer Population AND Habitat Viability Assessment. Workshop Briefing Book, pp. 1-3. IUCN, Apple Valley, Minnesota, USA.

Weber, M. and González, S. 2003. Latin American deer diversity and conservation: a review of status and distribution. Ecoscience 10(4): 443-454.

Citation: Gonzalez, S. & Merino, M.L. 2008. Ozotoceros bezoarticus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T15803A5183264. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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