Lymnaea stagnalis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Hygrophila Lymnaeidae

Scientific Name: Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Great Pond Snail
Helix stagnalis Linnaeus, 1758
Limnaea stagnalis (Subba Rao, 1989)
Taxonomic Notes:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2015-11-24
Assessor(s): Seddon, M.B., Van Damme, D. & Cordeiro, J.
Reviewer(s): Ormes, M., Böhm, M., Cuttelod, A. & Smith, K.
Contributor(s): Daniel, B.A., Budha, P.B., Dutta, J., Kebapçı, U. & Johnson, P.
This holarctic species is distributed widely through the Northern hemisphere, in Europe Asia and north America, reaching southern limits in north Africa, Lebanon. It also recorded as an introduction in Australia and New Zealand. Lymnaea stagnalis has a very wide global distribution with no global threats and is assessed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This holarctic species is distributed widely through the Northern hemisphere, in Europe Asia and north America, reaching southern limits in north Africa, Lebanon. It also recorded as an introduction in Australia and New Zealand. The status of the records from Venezuela needs investigation, as these may be introduced as well.

Within Europe the species has a widespread distribution, occurring in all European countries.  Fauna Europaea (Bank et al. 2006) lists the species from Norway, Sweden, Denmark (mainland), Faroe Is. (Denmark), Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Kalingrad region (Russia), Poland, Republic of Ireland (Eire), Great Britain (UK), Channel Islands (UK), Northern Ireland (UK), Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France (mainland), Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Italy (mainland), Bulgaria, Romania, Spain (mainland), Portugal (mainland), Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Slovenia, Montenegro, Reported from Croatia, Ukraine, Greece (including Andikíthira Island, Evvia Island, Ionian Islands, Samothráki Island, Northern Sporades Islands, Thásos Island). The species also occurs in south-west Asia (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Turkey and Israel) where Lebanon marks the southern limit of the species' distribution in this region.

A widespread species distributed in Asia (central, north and south and southeast), it has been recorded in India, Iran (Khuzestan Province, Glöer & Pesic, 2012) and Turkey. The Aammiq wetland in Lebanon provides good conditions for Lymnaea stagnalis (Bossneck, 2010). The species was reported by Schütt (1983) from the Syrian part of the Orontes drainage system, but does not extend to Israel.

Note that the current distribution map attached to this assessment is incomplete.
Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; Belgium; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; India (Jammu-Kashmir); Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Luxembourg; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation (Eastern Asian Russia, West Siberia); Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; United Kingdom; United States (Alabama, Alaska, Aleutian Is., Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaiian Is., Idaho, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon)
Australia; New Zealand
Present - origin uncertain:
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:No information on population status or trends has been recorded. Although there are localised declines, the species population is believed to be stable.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits slow or still waters, such as the edge of pools, streams, reservoirs, amongst others. They like muddy sand or crushed stone bottom, and feed on diatoms, aquatic plants and the remaining tissue of other gastropods. The species can be transported by birds, in part accounting for its very wide distribution.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade:

This species is known to be used as food in Russia (Ponomareva and Petson 2005).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is a widespread species with no major species-specific threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

No conservation actions are required for this species at present.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:No
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.1. Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
suitability:Unknown season:resident 
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over part of range
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:Unknown
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No

Bibliography [top]

Bank, R., von Proschwitz, T. and Falkner, G. 2006. Unpublished manuscript of the mollusca section of the Fauna Europea web-site (

Bößneck, U. 2011. New records of freshwater and land molluscs from Lebanon (Mollusca: Gastropoda & Bivalvia). Zoology in the Middle East 54: 35-52.

Glöer, P. 2002. Die Susswassergastropoden Nord und Mitteleuropas. Conchbooks, Hackenheim.

Glöer, P. and Meier-Brook, C. 2003. Susswassermollusken. Deutscher Jurgendbund fur Naturbeobachtung.

Glöer, P. & Pešić, V. 2012. The freshwater snails (Gastropoda) of Iran, with descriptions of two new genera and eight new species. ZooKeys 219: 11-61.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: (Accessed: 7 December 2017).

Kantor, Y., Vinarski, M., Schileyko, A. and Sysoev, A. 2010. Catalogue of the continental mollusks of Russia and adjacent territories. Electronic version 2.3.1. Available at:

Liu, Y., Zhang, W., Wang, Y. and Wang, E. 1979. Economic fauna of China - Freshwater Mollusca. Science Press, Beijing.

Milstein, D. Mienis, H.K. & Rittner, O.A. 2012. Field guide to the molluscs of inland waters of the land of Israel. Israel Nature and Parks Authority.

Ponomareva, E. V. Petson, E. V. 2005. Vasopressin Enhances Sensitization of Defensive Reflex in the Edible Snail Lymnaea stagnalis. JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY C/C OF ZHURNAL EVOLIUTSIONNOI BIOKHIMII I FIZIOLOGII 41(3): 368-370.

Schütt, H. 1982. Die Molluskenfauna der Süsswasser im Einzugsgebiet des Orontes unter Berucksichtigung benachbarter Fluss-systeme. Archiv für Molluskenkunde 113(1/6): 17-91.

Subba Rao, N.V. 1989. Handbook: Freshwater Molluscs of India. Zoological Survey of India, Culcutta.

Van Damme, D. 1984. The Freshwater Mollusca of Northern Africa: Distribution, Biogeography and Palaeoecology. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.

Citation: Seddon, M.B., Van Damme, D. & Cordeiro, J. 2017. Lymnaea stagnalis. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T155475A42428297. . Downloaded on 26 May 2018.
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