Caranx crysos 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Carangidae

Scientific Name: Caranx crysos (Mitchill, 1815)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Blue Runner, Black Jack, Bluestripe Jack, Boca Abou, Crevalle, Golden Jack, Green Jack, Hardnose, Hardtail, Hardtailed Jack, Horse Mackerel, Jack, Mackerel, Runner, White Back Cavalli, Yara Yag, Yaru Boca Abau, Yellow Mackerel, Yellow Tail Cavalli
French Caran, Carangue, Carangue Bonite, Carangue Coubali, Carangue Cuisinière, Carangue Dorée, Carangue Grasse, Carangue Macoque, Carangue Tête Ronde, Chinchard, Crevaille, Jurel
Spanish Atún, Cachorreta, Cojinoa, Cojinoa negra, Cojinua, Cojinúa, Cojinúa Azul, Cojinua Negra, Cojinúa Negra, Cojinúa Prieta, Cojinuda, Cojinuda Negra, Crevallé, Guïra, Jurel, Jurel Azul, Jurel Trompa de Hierro, Madregal, Medregal, Palometa, Surell
Carangoides crysos (Mitchill, 1815)
Caranx fusus Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817
Caranx pisquetus Cuvier, 1833
Scomber chrysos Mitchill, 1815
Scomber crysos Mitchill, 1815
Trachurus squamosus Gronow, 1854
Taxonomic Notes: In the tropical Eastern Pacific, Caranx crysos is replaced by Caranx caballus (Günther 1869), which may be conspecific.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-02-04
Assessor(s): Herdson, D.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.
The Blue Runner, Caranx crysos, has been assessed as Least Concern. This species is commercially harvested as a food and bait source, however this does not occur throughout its entire broad distribution and therefore is not considered a major threat. It is also occasionally harvested for the aquarium trade but this threat is unlikely to be significantly impacting the population numbers of this species. This species has also been reported to be a common species in the western Atlantic, and one of the most abundant species off South Carolina, U.S.A. Monitoring of the harvest levels of this species for both the food, bait and aquarium trade is needed to forewarn of any future declines in the population.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:In the eastern Atlantic, the Blue Runner (Caranx crysos) is found in the Mediterranean, south to Senegal to Angola (Froese and Pauly 2006). This range has been extended north with the first record for the French Atlantic coast, from Arcachon, Bay of Biscay (Quero et al. 1994), and two more recent records from the coast of Dorset and Cornwall in England (Sawby et al. 1996); this now brings the British records to 13 individuals (D. Herdson pers. comm. 2007). The northward extension of this species' range is thought to be related to increasing sea temperatures in the North Atlantic (Stebbing et al. 2002).

In the western Atlantic this species is recorded from Nova Scotia (Canada), Brazil, Bahamas, throughout the Caribbean (including Antilles) and the Gulf of Mexico.

In the eastern Pacific, the Blue Runner is replaced by Caranx caballus which may be conspecific.
Countries occurrence:
Algeria; Angola; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Brazil; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Cyprus; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Egypt; Equatorial Guinea; France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Lebanon; Liberia; Libya; Malta; Martinique; Mauritania; Mexico; Monaco; Montserrat; Morocco; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Spain; Suriname; Syrian Arab Republic; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turks and Caicos Islands; United Kingdom (Great Britain); United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – northeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest; Mediterranean and Black Sea
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Swaby et al. (1996) state that Blue Runner are common enough in the western Atlantic, to be caught commercially for food and bait. A study by Rountree (1990) found this species to be the second most abundant species off South Carolina, U.S.A. and a study by D'anna et al. (1999) found this species to be one of the most abundant fish in the Gulf of Castellammare, northwest Sicily.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The Blue Runner is a pelagic species which forms schools primarily inshore; it is not thought to be common around reefs (FAO 2002). It has a depth range of 0-100 m and juveniles are found beneath floating Sargassum mats. These mats provide this species both with prey and protection from predators. It feeds on shrimps, fishes and other invertebrates. Two spawning peaks have been identified for this species, the main occurring in June, July and August, with a secondary peak in October (Swaby et al. 1996). However, it has also been suggested that spawning occurs throughout the year (McKenney et al. 1958; Goodwin and Finucane 1985).
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is thought to be harvested from the wild for food, and bred in captivity for the aquarium trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The Blue Runner is harvested as a food source and for bait. It is caught using using bottom and pelagic trawls, ringnets, purse seines, set nets, and line gear. It is marketed fresh, frozen and salted and in the Dominican Republic and USA up to 1,000 tons of this species is landed per year. At present there is no known evidence to suggest the global population is in significant decline.

This species is also used within the public aquarium trade, however much of the demand is met by captive breeding. Wild harvest of this species for the aquarium trade will have no significant impact on the global population of this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Caranx crysos, however its distribution may coincide with numerous marine protected areas.

Monitoring of the harvest levels of this species is needed.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.1. Marine Neritic - Pelagic
10. Marine Oceanic -> 10.1. Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:No decline ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.2. Intentional use: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Food - animal
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

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