Luzonichthys earlei 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Serranidae

Scientific Name: Luzonichthys earlei Randall, 1981
Common Name(s):
English Earle's Splitfin

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-02-04
Assessor(s): Sadovy, Y.J.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.
Earle's Splitfin (Luzonichthys earlei) has been assessed as Least Concern. This is a wide-ranging species with no known major threats at present. Although this species may be locally affected by habitat degradation in the form of coral bleaching, and is also occasionally collected for the aquarium trade, these threats are not thought to be causing any significant population declines at present. Monitoring of the habitat status and harvest levels of this species is needed in case these threats intensify in the future.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Earle's Splitfin (Luzonichthys earlei) is found off the coast of the Maldives, Christmas Island, New Britain, the Marshalls, the Hawaiian Islands and throughout Micronesia.
Countries occurrence:
Christmas Island; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago); United States (Hawaiian Is.)
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – western central
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):205
Upper depth limit (metres):15
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is no population information available for Earle's Splitfin.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Earle's Splitfin is a reef-associated species that forms large, zooplankton-feeding aggregations along steep outer reef slopes. The depth profile of this benthopelagic species is 15-205 m.
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Luzonichthys earlei is occasionally collected for the aquarium trade

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Earle's Splitfin is potentially impacted by habitat degradation and bleaching events on reef systems (Kelty and Kuartei 2004, NCCO 2005). This species is also occasionally collected for the aquarium trade. However, these are localized threats only, and therefore presently do not represent major threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no known species-specific conservation measures in place for Earle's Splitfin, however its distribution may cover a number of marine protected area designations, including the Hanauma Bay Marine Life Conservation District in the Hawaiian Islands.

Monitoring of the habitat status and harvest levels of this species are needed.

Errata [top]

Errata reason: This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.3. Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope)

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.6. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

Bibliography [top]

Bianchi, G. 1985. Field guide to the commercial marine and brackish-water species of Tanzania. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2006. FishBase. Available at:

Hardy Jr., J.D. 2003. Coral reef fish species. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) Coral Reef Data and Information Management System. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Oceanographic Data Center.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Myers, R.F. 1999. Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam.

Randall, J.E. and Anderson, R.C. 1993. Annotated checklist of the epipelagic and shore fishes of the Maldives Islands. Ichthyology Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology 59: 1-47.

Randall, J.E. and McCosker, J.E. 1992. Revision of the fish genus Luzonichthys (Perciformes: Serranidae: Anthiinae), with descriptions of two new species. Indo-Pacific Fishes 21: 21.

Randall, J.E., Earle, J.L., Hayes, T., Pittman, C., Severns, M. and Smith, R.L.F. 1993. Eleven new records and validations of shore fishes from the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science 47(3): 222-239.

Waddell, J.E. (ed.). 2005. The state of coral reef ecosystems of the United States and Pacific freely associated states: 2005. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 11. NOAA/NCCOS. Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment’s Biogeography Team, Silver Spring, USA.

Wood, L.J. 2007. MPA Global: A Database of the World's Marine Protected Areas. Available at:

Citation: Sadovy, Y.J. 2010. Luzonichthys earlei. In: (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T154695A115223293. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
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