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Odobenus rosmarus

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Bibliography [top]

Born, E. W. 2005. An assessment of the effects of hunting and climate on walruses in Greenland. University of Oslo.

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 2006. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Atlantic walrus Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus in Canada. Ottawa, Canada Available at: http://www.sararegistry.gc.ca/virtual_sara/files/cosewic/sr_atlantic_walrus_e.pdf.

Fay, F.H. 1981. Walrus Odobenus rosmarus (Linneaus, 1758). In: S.H. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds), Handbook of Marine Mammals, Vol. 1: The walrus, sea lions, fur seals, and sea otter, pp. 1-23. Academic Press.

Fay, F.H. 1982. Ecology and biology of the Pacific walrus, Odobenus rosmarus divergens Illiger. North American Fauna 74:1-279.

Fay, F.H. and Kelly, B.P. 1980. Mass natural mortality of walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) at St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea, autumn 1978. Arctic 33:226-245.

Fay, F.H., Eberhardt, L.L., Kelly, B.P., Burns, J.J. and Quakenbush, L.T. 1997. Status of the Pacific walrus populatuon, 1950-1989. Marine Mammal Science 13(4): 537-565.

Fay, F.H., Kelly, B.P. and Sease, J.L. 1989. Managing the exploitation of Pacific walruses: a tragedy of delayed response and poor communication. Marine Mammal Science 5: 1-16.

Garlich-Miller, J.L., Quakenbush, L.T. and Bromaghin, J.F. 2006. Trends in age structure and productivity of Pacific walruses harvested in the Bering Strait region of Alaska, 1952-2002. Marine Mammal Science 22(4): 880-896.

Gilbert, J., Fedoseev, G., Seagars, D., Razlivalov, E. and Lachugin, A. 1992. Aerial census of Pacific walrus, 1990. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Administrative Report R7/MMM 92-1.

Gilbert, J. R. 1989. Aerial census of Pacific walruses in the Chukchi Sea, 1985. Marine Mammal Science 5: 27-28.

Gilbert, J.R. 1999. Review of previous Pacific walrus surveys to develop improved survey designs. In: G.W. Garner, S.C. Amstrup, J.L. Laake, B.F.J. Manly, L.L. McDonald and D.G. Robertson (eds), Marine Mammal Survey and Assessment Methods, pp. 75-84. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Laidre, K.L., Stirling, I., Lowry, L.F., Wiig, Ø., Heide-Jørgensen, M.P. and Ferguson, S.H. 2008. Quantifying the sensitivity of Arctic marine mammals to climate-induced habitat change. Ecological Applications 18: S97-S125.

Lindqvist, C., Bachmann, L., Andersen, L. W., Born, E. W., Arnason, U., Kovacs, K. M., Lydersen, C., Abramov, A. V. and Wiig, Ø. Unpublished. The Laptev Sea walrus Odobenus rosmarus laptevi: an enigma revisited.

Lydersen, C., Aars, J. and Kovacs. K. M. 2008. Estimating the number of walruses in Svalbard based on aerial surveys and behavioural data from satellite telemetry. Arctic 61(2): 119-128.

Moore, S. E. 2005. Long-term environmental change and marine mammals. In: J. E. Reynolds III, W. F. Perrin, R. R. Reeves, S. Montgomery and T. J. Ragen (eds), Marine Mammal Research Conservation Beyond Crisis, pp. 137-148. Johns Hopkins University Press., Baltimore, USA.

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission. Undated. Status of marine mammals in the North Atlantic: the Atlantic walrus. Available at: http://www.nammco.no/webcronize/images/Nammco/654.pdf.

Reijnders, P., Brasseur, S., van der Toorn, J., van der Wolf, P., Boyd, I., Harwood, J., Lavigne, D. and Lowry, L. 1993. Seals, fur seals, sea lions, and walrus. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN Seal Specialist Group.

Rice, D.W. 1998. Marine Mammals of the World. Systematics and Distribution. Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas.

Stirling, I. and Derocher, A. E. 1993. Possible impacts of climatic warming on polar bears. Arctic 46: 240-245.

Tynan, C. T. and DeMaster, D. P. 1997. Observations and predictions of Arctic climate change potential effects of marine mammals. Arctic 50: 308-322.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2002. Pacfic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens): Alaska stock. Available at: http://alaska.fws.gov/fisheries/mmm/walrus/pdf/Final_%20Pacific_Walrus_SAR.pdf.

Witting, L. and Born, E. 2005. An assessment of Greenland walrus populations. ICES Journal of Marine Science 62: 266–285.


Citation: Lowry, L., Kovacs, K. & Burkanov, V. (IUCN SSC Pinniped Specialist Group) 2008. Odobenus rosmarus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 December 2014.
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