Panthera tigris ssp. jacksoni


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Panthera tigris ssp. jacksoni
Species Authority: Luo et al., 2004
Parent Species:
Common Name(s):
English Malayan Tiger
Taxonomic Notes: In 2004, the tigers of Peninsular Malaysia were recognized as a new subspecies, Panthera tigris jacksoni, when a genetic analysis found that they are distinct in mtDNA and micro-satellite sequences from tigers of northern Indochina, P. t. corbetti (Luo et al., 2004). However, Mazak and Groves (2006) found no clear morphological differences (in cranial measurements or pelage characteristics) between tigers from Peninsular Malaysia and those elsewhere in Indochina, and argue for inclusion in P. t. corbetti. P. t. jacksoni is provisionally accepted here. The geographic division between P. t. jacksoni and P. t. corbetti is unclear as tiger populations in northern Malaysia are contiguous with those in southern Thailand (T. Lynam pers. comm. 2008).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Kawanishi, K. & Lynam, T.
Reviewer(s): Nowell, K., Breitenmoser-Wursten, C., Breitenmoser, U. (Cat Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
Based on typical prey biomass in tropical rainforests, energetic needs of tigers, estimated tiger densities from studies carried out in Taman Negara National Park, Malaysia, and others in tropical Asia, and available tiger habitats in Peninsular Malaysia, Kawanishi et al. (2003) estimated the national tiger population at 493-1,480 adult tigers. The lower bound coincides with the previous population estimate for the country (Topani 1990) and is the number selected as feasible by the country's national tiger action plan (DWNP 2008). However, based on density estimates derived from camera trapping in six sites in Malaysia during the late 1990s, Lynam et al. (2007) suggest a lower population, "up to several hundred." Tigers occur in three large subpopulations (Kawanishi et al. 2003), none likely harboring more than 250 mature breeding individuals. Conservation effectiveness in several of these subpopulations received low scores in a global tiger population survey (Sanderson et al. 2006). Habitat fragmentation due to development projects and agriculture (Kawanishi et al. 2003) and poaching for illegal trade (Nowell 2007, TRAFFIC Southeast Asia in prep.) are the most serious threats that require intensive conservation interventions A continuing decline is these and other factors including human-wildlife conflict, and prey base depletion (DWNP 2008).

Geographic Range [top]

Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Systems: Terrestrial

Bibliography [top]

Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia. In prep.. National Tiger Action Plan for Malaysia. In: Department of National Parks and Wildlife (eds). Government of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.

Kawanishi, K., Yatim, S. H., Abu Hashim, A. K. and Topani, R. 2003. Distribution and potential population size of the tiger in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife Parks (Malaysia) 21: 29-50.

Luo, S. J., Kim, J. H., Johnson, W. E., Van Der Walt, J., Martenson, J., Yuhki, N., Miquelle, D. G., Uphyrkina, O., Goodrich, J. M., Quigley, H., Tilson, R., Brady, G., Martelli, P., Subramaniam, V., Mcdougal, C., Hean, S., Huang, S. Q., Pan, W., Karanth, U. K., Sunquist, M., Smith, J. L. D. and O'Brien, S. J. 2004. Phylogeography and genetic ancestry of tigers (Panthera tigris). PLoS Biology 2: 2275-2293.

Lynam, A. J., Laidlaw, R., Wan Shaharuddin Wan Noordin, Elagupillay, S. and Bennett, E. L. 2007. Assessing the conservation status of the Tiger Panthera tigris at priority sites in peninsular Malaysia. Oryx 41: 454-462.

Mazak, J. H. and Groves, C. P. 2006. A taxonomic revision of the tigers (Panthera tigris) of Southeast Asia. Mammalian Biology 71(5): 268-287.

Nowell,K. 2007. Asian big cat conservation and trade control in selected range States: evaluating implementation and effectiveness of CITES Recommendations. TRAFFIC International, Cambrudge, UK.

Sanderson, E., Forrest, J., Loucks, C., Ginsberg, J., Dinerstein, E., Seidensticker, J., Leimgruber, P., Songer, M., Heydlauff, A., O'Brien, T., Bryja, G., Klenzendorf, S and Wikramanayake, E. 2006. Setting Priorities for the Conservation and Recovery of Wild Tigers: 2005-2015. The Technical Assessment. WCS, WWF, Smithsonian, and NFWF-STF, New York and Washington, DC, USA.

Topani, R. 1990. Status and distribution of tiger in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife Parks (Malaysia) 9: 71-102.

Citation: Kawanishi, K. & Lynam, T. 2008. Panthera tigris ssp. jacksoni. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 29 May 2015.
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