Neomonachus tropicalis


Bibliography [top]

Boyd, I. L. and Stanfield, M. P. 1998. Circumstantial evidence for the presence of monk seals in the West Indies. Oryx 32: 310-316.

Kenyon, K.W. 1981. Monk seals - Monachus Fleming, 1822. In: S. H. Ridgway and R. Harrison (eds), Handbook of marine mammals, pp. 195-220. Academic Press, London, UK.

Le Boeuf, B. J., Kenyon, K. W. and Villa-Ramirez, B. 1986. The Caribbean monk seal is extinct. Marine Mammal Science 2: 70-72.

Reijnders, P., Brasseur, S., van der Toorn, J., van der Wolf, P., Boyd, I., Harwood, J., Lavigne, D. and Lowry, L. 1993. Seals, fur seals, sea lions, and walrus. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN Seal Specialist Group.

The Extinction Website. 2007. Monachus tropicalis. Available at:

Citation: Kovacs, K. 2008. Neomonachus tropicalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 23 May 2015.
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